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              Structure of Matter


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                  Chemical Reactions


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                    Chemistry of Living Systems


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                        Density and Buoyancy


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                            Thinking Like a Scientist


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                              Electricity and Magnetism


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                                Information and Technology


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                                  Nervous System


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                                    Respiratory System


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                                      The Earth System


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                                        Heat and Thermodynamics


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                                          Erosion and Weathering


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                                                    Circulatory System


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                                                          Musculoskeletal System


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                                                            The Ear and Sound


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                                                              Earth and Life History


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                                                                Plate Tectonics


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                                                                  Digestive System


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                                                                      Engineering and Design


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                                                                        Thinking Like a Historian


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                                                                            Fertile Crescent


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                                                                                    Ancient Hebrews


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                                                                                      Ancient Greece


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                                                                                          Islam in the Middle Ages


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                                                                                            The Roaring Twenties


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                                                                                                European Reformation


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                                                                                                  China in the Middle Ages


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                                                                                                    Ghana and Mali in Medieval Africa


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                                                                                                      Medieval Japan


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                                                                                                        Medieval Europe


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                                                                                                          Meso-American and Andean Civilizations


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                                                                                                            European Renaissance


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                                                                                                              Scientific Revolution


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                                                                                                                Age of Exploration


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                                                                                                                  The Enlightenment


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                                                                                                                    The Age of Reason


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                                                                                                                      Early U.S. Colonial Life


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                                                                                                                        Leading up to the American Revolution


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                                                                                                                          Development of American Constitutional Democracy


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                                                                                                                            The American Political System


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                                                                                                                              The People of the New United States


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                                                                                                                                Early Republic U.S. Foreign Policy


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                                                                                                                                  The North, Early to mid 1800's


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                                                                                                                                    The South, Early to mid 1800's


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                                                                                                                                      The West, early to mid 1800's


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                                                                                                                                        Slavery and the Ideals of The Declaration of Independence


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                                                                                                                                            Reconstruction


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                                                                                                                                              MS-PS1 Matter and Its Interactions


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                                                                                                                                              • MS-PS1-1 Develop models to describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures.

                                                                                                                                                Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on developing models of molecules that vary in complexity. Examples of simple molecules could include ammonia and methanol. Examples of extended structures could include sodium chloride or diamonds. Examples of molecular-level models could include drawings, 3D ball and stick structures, or computer representations showing different molecules with different types of atoms.

                                                                                                                                                Assesssment Boundary: Assessment does not include valence electrons and bonding energy, discussing the ionic nature of subunits of complex structures, or a complete depiction of all individual atoms in a complex molecule or extended structure.

                                                                                                                                                Crosscutting Concept: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

                                                                                                                                                Aligned Articles (2)

                                                                                                                                                Background Articles (3)

                                                                                                                                                  • MS-PS1-2 Analyze and interpret data on the properties of substances before and after the substances interact to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.

                                                                                                                                                    Clarification Statement: Examples of reactions could include burning sugar or steel wool, fat reacting with sodium hydroxide, and mixing zinc with hydrogen chloride.

                                                                                                                                                    Assesssment Boundary: Assessment is limited to analysis of the following properties: density, melting point, boiling point, solubility, flammability, and odor.

                                                                                                                                                    Crosscutting Concept: Patterns

                                                                                                                                                    Aligned Articles (3)

                                                                                                                                                    Background Articles (3)

                                                                                                                                                      • MS-PS1-3 Gather and make sense of information to describe that synthetic materials come from natural resources and impact society.

                                                                                                                                                        Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on natural resources that undergo a chemical process to form the synthetic material. Examples of new materials could include new medicine, foods, and alternative fuels.

                                                                                                                                                        Assesssment Boundary: Assessment is limited to qualitative information.

                                                                                                                                                        Crosscutting Concept: Structure and Function

                                                                                                                                                        Aligned Articles (2)

                                                                                                                                                        Background Articles (0)

                                                                                                                                                          • MS-PS1-4 Develop a model that predicts and describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed.

                                                                                                                                                            Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on qualitative molecular-level models of solids, liquids, and gases to show that adding or removing thermal energy increases or decreases kinetic energy of the particles until a change of state occurs. Examples of models could include drawings and diagrams. Examples of particles could include molecules or inert atoms. Examples of pure substances could include water, carbon dioxide, and helium.

                                                                                                                                                            Crosscutting Concept: Cause and Effect

                                                                                                                                                            Aligned Articles (5)

                                                                                                                                                            Background Articles (3)

                                                                                                                                                              • MS-PS1-5 Develop and use a model to describe how the total number of atoms does not change in a chemical reaction and thus mass is conserved.

                                                                                                                                                                Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on law of conservation of matter and on physical models or drawings, including digital forms, that represent atoms.

                                                                                                                                                                Assesssment Boundary: Assessment does not include the use of atomic masses, balancing symbolic equations, or intermolecular forces.

                                                                                                                                                                Crosscutting Concept: Energy and Matter

                                                                                                                                                                Aligned Articles (1)

                                                                                                                                                                Background Articles (3)

                                                                                                                                                                  • MS-PS1-6 Undertake a design project to construct, test, and modify a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical processes.*

                                                                                                                                                                    Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the design, controlling the transfer of energy to the environment, and modification of a device using factors such as type and concentration of a substance. Examples of designs could involve chemical reactions such as dissolving ammonium chloride or calcium chloride.

                                                                                                                                                                    Assesssment Boundary: Assessment is limited to the criteria of amount, time, and temperature of substance in testing the device.

                                                                                                                                                                    Crosscutting Concept: Energy and Matter

                                                                                                                                                                    Aligned Articles (2)

                                                                                                                                                                    Background Articles (3)

                                                                                                                                                                      MS-PS2 Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions


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                                                                                                                                                                      • MS-PS2-1 Apply Newton's Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects.*

                                                                                                                                                                        Clarification Statement: Examples of practical problems could include the impact of collisions between two cars, between a car and stationary objects, and between a meteor and a space vehicle.

                                                                                                                                                                        Assesssment Boundary: Assessment is limited to vertical or horizontal interactions in one dimension.

                                                                                                                                                                        Crosscutting Concept: Systems and System Models

                                                                                                                                                                        Aligned Articles (1)

                                                                                                                                                                        Background Articles (2)

                                                                                                                                                                          • MS-PS2-2 Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object's motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.

                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on balanced (Newton's First Law) and unbalanced forces in a system, qualitative comparisons of forces, mass and changes in motion (Newton's Second Law), frame of reference, and specification of units.

                                                                                                                                                                            Assesssment Boundary: Assessment is limited to forces and changes in motion in one-dimension in an inertial reference frame and to change in one variable at a time. Assessment does not include the use of trigonometry.

                                                                                                                                                                            Crosscutting Concept: Stability and Change

                                                                                                                                                                            Aligned Articles (2)

                                                                                                                                                                            Background Articles (1)

                                                                                                                                                                              • MS-PS2-3 Ask questions about data to determine the factors that affect the strength of electric and magnetic forces.

                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification Statement: Examples of devices that use electric and magnetic forces could include electromagnets, electric motors, or generators. Examples of data could include the effect of the number of turns of wire on the strength of an electromagnet, or the effect of increasing the number or strength of magnets on the speed of an electric motor.

                                                                                                                                                                                Assesssment Boundary: Assessment about questions that require quantitative answers is limited to proportional reasoning and algebraic thinking.

                                                                                                                                                                                Crosscutting Concept: Cause and Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                Aligned Articles (2)

                                                                                                                                                                                Background Articles (0)

                                                                                                                                                                                  • MS-PS2-4 Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Clarification Statement: Examples of evidence for arguments could include data generated from simulations or digital tools; and charts displaying mass, strength of interaction, distance from the Sun, and orbital periods of objects within the solar system.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Assesssment Boundary: Assessment does not include Newton's Law of Gravitation or Kepler's Laws.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Crosscutting Concept: Systems and System Models

                                                                                                                                                                                    Aligned Articles (1)

                                                                                                                                                                                    Background Articles (3)

                                                                                                                                                                                      • MS-PS2-5 Conduct an investigation and evaluate the experimental design to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Clarification Statement: Examples of this phenomenon could include the interactions of magnets, electrically-charged strips of tape, and electrically-charged pith balls. Examples of investigations could include first-hand experiences or simulations.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Assesssment Boundary: Assessment is limited to electric and magnetic fields, and limited to qualitative evidence for the existence of fields.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Crosscutting Concept: Cause and Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                        Aligned Articles (0)

                                                                                                                                                                                        Background Articles (1)

                                                                                                                                                                                          MS-PS3 Energy


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                                                                                                                                                                                          • MS-PS3-1 Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to describe the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass of an object and to the speed of an object.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on descriptive relationships between kinetic energy and mass separately from kinetic energy and speed. Examples could include riding a bicycle at different speeds, rolling different sizes of rocks downhill, and getting hit by a wiffle ball versus a tennis ball.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Crosscutting Concept: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

                                                                                                                                                                                            Aligned Articles (1)

                                                                                                                                                                                            Background Articles (1)

                                                                                                                                                                                              • MS-PS3-2 Develop a model to describe that when the arrangement of objects interacting at a distance changes, different amounts of potential energy are stored in the system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on relative amounts of potential energy, not on calculations of potential energy. Examples of objects within systems interacting at varying distances could include: the Earth and either a roller coaster cart at varying positions on a hill or objects at varying heights on shelves, changing the direction/orientation of a magnet, and a balloon with static electrical charge being brought closer to a classmate's hair. Examples of models could include representations, diagrams, pictures, and written descriptions of systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Assesssment Boundary: Assessment is limited to two objects and electric, magnetic, and gravitational interactions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Crosscutting Concept: Systems and System Models

                                                                                                                                                                                                Aligned Articles (0)

                                                                                                                                                                                                Background Articles (1)

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • MS-PS3-3 Apply scientific principles to design, construct, and test a device that either minimizes or maximizes thermal energy transfer.*

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clarification Statement: Examples of devices could include an insulated box, a solar cooker, and a Styrofoam cup.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Assesssment Boundary: Assessment does not include calculating the total amount of thermal energy transferred.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Crosscutting Concept: Energy and Matter

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aligned Articles (0)

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Background Articles (4)

                                                                                                                                                                                                      • MS-PS3-4 Plan an investigation to determine the relationships among the energy transferred, the type of matter, the mass, and the change in the average kinetic energy of the particles as measured by the temperature of the sample.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Clarification Statement: Examples of experiments could include comparing final water temperatures after different masses of ice melted in the same volume of water with the same initial temperature, the temperature change of samples of different materials with the same mass as they cool or heat in the environment, or the same material with different masses when a specific amount of energy is added.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Assesssment Boundary: Assessment does not include calculating the total amount of thermal energy transferred.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Crosscutting Concept: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Aligned Articles (0)

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Background Articles (5)

                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MS-PS3-5 Construct, use, and present arguments to support the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification Statement: Examples of empirical evidence used in arguments could include an inventory or other representation of the energy before and after the transfer in the form of temperature changes or motion of object.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Assesssment Boundary: Assessment does not include calculations of energy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Crosscutting Concept: Energy and Matter

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Aligned Articles (0)

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Background Articles (4)

                                                                                                                                                                                                              MS-PS4 Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer


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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • MS-PS4-1 Use mathematical representations to describe a simple model for waves that includes how the amplitude of a wave is related to the energy in a wave.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on describing waves with both qualitative and quantitative thinking.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Assesssment Boundary: Assessment does not include electromagnetic waves and is limited to standard repeating waves.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Crosscutting Concept: Patterns

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aligned Articles (0)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Background Articles (5)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • MS-PS4-2 Develop and use a model to describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both light and mechanical waves. Examples of models could include drawings, simulations, and written descriptions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Assesssment Boundary: Assessment is limited to qualitative applications pertaining to light and mechanical waves.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Crosscutting Concept: Structure and Function

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aligned Articles (1)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Background Articles (6)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • MS-PS4-3 Integrate qualitative scientific and technical information to support the claim that digitized signals are a more reliable way to encode and transmit information than analog signals.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on a basic understanding that waves can be used for communication purposes. Examples could include using fiber optic cable to transmit light pulses, radio wave pulses in wifi devices, and conversion of stored binary patterns to make sound or text on a computer screen.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Assesssment Boundary: Assessment does not include binary counting. Assessment does not include the specific mechanism of any given device.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Crosscutting Concept: Structure and Function

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Aligned Articles (2)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Background Articles (1)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          MS-LS1 From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MS-LS1-1 Conduct an investigation to provide evidence that living things are made of cells; either one cell or many different numbers and types of cells.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on developing evidence that living things are made of cells, distinguishing between living and non-living things, and understanding that living things may be made of one cell or many and varied cells.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Crosscutting Concept: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Aligned Articles (2)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Background Articles (3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • MS-LS1-2 Develop and use a model to describe the function of a cell as a whole and ways parts of cells contribute to the function.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the cell functioning as a whole system and the primary role of identified parts of the cell, specifically the nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria, cell membrane, and cell wall.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Assesssment Boundary: Assessment of organelle structure/function relationships is limited to the cell wall and cell membrane. Assessment of the function of the other organelles is limited to their relationship to the whole cell. Assessment does not include the biochemical function of cells or cell parts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Crosscutting Concept: Structure and Function

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aligned Articles (3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Background Articles (3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • MS-LS1-3 Use arguments supported by evidence for how the body is a system of interacting subsystems composed of groups of cells.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the conceptual understanding that cells form tissues and tissues form organs specialized for particular body functions. Examples could include the interaction of subsystems within a system and the normal functioning of those systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Assesssment Boundary: Assessment does not include the mechanism of one body system independent of others. Assessment is limited to the circulatory, excretory, digestive, respiratory, muscular, and nervous systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Crosscutting Concept: Systems and System Models

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aligned Articles (1)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Background Articles (3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • MS-LS1-4 Use argument based on empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support an explanation for how characteristic animal behaviors and specialized plant structures affect the probability of successful reproduction of animals and plants respectively.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Clarification Statement: Examples of behaviors that affect the probability of animal reproduction could include nest building to protect young from cold, herding of animals to protect young from predators, and vocalization of animals and colorful plumage to attract mates for breeding. Examples of animal behaviors that affect the probability of plant reproduction could include transferring pollen or seeds, and creating conditions for seed germination and growth. Examples of plant structures could include bright flowers attracting butterflies that transfer pollen, flower nectar and odors that attract insects that transfer pollen, and hard shells on nuts that squirrels bury.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Crosscutting Concept: Cause and Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Aligned Articles (1)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Background Articles (4)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MS-LS1-5 Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how environmental and genetic factors influence the growth of organisms.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification Statement: Examples of local environmental conditions could include availability of food, light, space, and water. Examples of genetic factors could include large breed cattle and species of grass affecting growth of organisms. Examples of evidence could include drought decreasing plant growth, fertilizer increasing plant growth, different varieties of plant seeds growing at different rates in different conditions, and fish growing larger in large ponds than they do in small ponds.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Assesssment Boundary: Assessment does not include genetic mechanisms, gene regulation, or biochemical processes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Crosscutting Concept: Cause and Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Aligned Articles (4)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Background Articles (6)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • MS-LS1-6 Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for the role of photosynthesis in the cycling of matter and flow of energy into and out of organisms.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on tracing movement of matter and flow of energy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Assesssment Boundary: Assessment does not include the biochemical mechanisms of photosynthesis.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Crosscutting Concept: Energy and Matter

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aligned Articles (2)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Background Articles (1)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • MS-LS1-7 Develop a model to describe how food is rearranged through chemical reactions forming new molecules that support growth and/or release energy as this matter moves through an organism.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on describing that molecules are broken apart and put back together and that in this process, energy is released.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Assesssment Boundary: Assessment does not include details of the chemical reactions for photosynthesis or respiration.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Crosscutting Concept: Energy and Matter

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aligned Articles (1)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Background Articles (4)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • MS-LS1-8 Gather and synthesize information that sensory receptors respond to stimuli by sending messages to the brain for immediate behavior or storage as memories.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Assesssment Boundary: Assessment does not include mechanisms for the transmission of this information.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Crosscutting Concept: Cause and Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Aligned Articles (1)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Background Articles (0)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          MS-LS2 Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MS-LS2-1 Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on cause and effect relationships between resources and growth of individual organisms and the numbers of organisms in ecosystems during periods of abundant and scarce resources.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Crosscutting Concept: Cause and Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Aligned Articles (1)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Background Articles (2)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • MS-LS2-2 Construct an explanation that predicts patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on predicting consistent patterns of interactions in different ecosystems in terms of the relationships among and between organisms and abiotic components of ecosystems. Examples of types of interactions could include competitive, predatory, and mutually beneficial.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Crosscutting Concept: Patterns

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aligned Articles (3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Background Articles (2)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • MS-LS2-3 Develop a model to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy among living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on describing the conservation of matter and flow of energy into and out of various ecosystems, and on defining the boundaries of the system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Assesssment Boundary: Assessment does not include the use of chemical reactions to describe the processes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Crosscutting Concept: Energy and Matter

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aligned Articles (3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Background Articles (3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • MS-LS2-4 Construct an argument supported by empirical evidence that changes to physical or biological components of an ecosystem affect populations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on recognizing patterns in data and making warranted inferences about changes in populations, and on evaluating empirical evidence supporting arguments about changes to ecosystems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Crosscutting Concept: Stability and Change

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Aligned Articles (0)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Background Articles (0)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MS-LS2-5 Evaluate competing design solutions for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services.*

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification Statement: Examples of ecosystem services could include water purification, nutrient recycling, and prevention of soil erosion. Examples of design solution constraints could include scientific, economic, and social considerations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Crosscutting Concept: Stability and Change

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Aligned Articles (1)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Background Articles (0)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              MS-LS3 Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • MS-LS3-1 Develop and use a model to describe why structural changes to genes (mutations) located on chromosomes may affect proteins and may result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and function of the organism.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on conceptual understanding that changes in genetic material may result in making different proteins.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Assesssment Boundary: Assessment does not include specific changes at the molecular level, mechanisms for protein synthesis, or specific types of mutations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Crosscutting Concept: Structure and Function

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aligned Articles (2)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Background Articles (7)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • MS-LS3-2 Develop and use a model to describe why asexual reproduction results in offspring with identical genetic information and sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using models such as Punnett squares, diagrams, and simulations to describe the cause and effect relationship of gene transmission from parent(s) to offspring and resulting genetic variation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Crosscutting Concept: Cause and Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aligned Articles (2)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Background Articles (5)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      MS-LS4 Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • MS-LS4-1 Analyze and interpret data for patterns in the fossil record that document the existence, diversity, extinction, and change of life forms throughout the history of life on Earth under the assumption that natural laws operate today as in the past.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on finding patterns of changes in the level of complexity of anatomical structures in organisms and the chronological order of fossil appearance in the rock layers.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Assesssment Boundary: Assessment does not include the names of individual species or geological eras in the fossil record.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Crosscutting Concept: Patterns

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Aligned Articles (1)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Background Articles (7)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MS-LS4-2 Apply scientific ideas to construct an explanation for the anatomical similarities and differences among modern organisms and between modern and fossil organisms to infer evolutionary relationships.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on explanations of the evolutionary relationships among organisms in terms of similarity or differences of the gross appearance of anatomical structures.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Crosscutting Concept: Patterns

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Aligned Articles (0)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Background Articles (5)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • MS-LS4-3 Analyze displays of pictorial data to compare patterns of similarities in the embryological development across multiple species to identify relationships not evident in the fully formed anatomy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on inferring general patterns of relatedness among embryos of different organisms by comparing the macroscopic appearance of diagrams or pictures.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Assesssment Boundary: Assessment of comparisons is limited to gross appearance of anatomical structures in embryological development.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Crosscutting Concept: Patterns

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aligned Articles (0)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Background Articles (0)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • MS-LS4-4 Construct an explanation based on evidence that describes how genetic variations of traits in a population increase some individuals' probability of surviving and reproducing in a specific environment.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using simple probability statements and proportional reasoning to construct explanations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Crosscutting Concept: Cause and Effect

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • MS-LS4-5 Gather and synthesize information about the technologies that have changed the way humans influence the inheritance of desired traits in organisms.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on synthesizing information from reliable sources about the influence of humans on genetic outcomes in artificial selection (such as genetic modification, animal husbandry, gene therapy); and, on the impacts these technologies have on society as well as the technologies leading to these scientific discoveries.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Crosscutting Concept: Cause and Effect

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MS-LS4-6 Use mathematical representations to support explanations of how natural selection may lead to increases and decreases of specific traits in populations over time.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using mathematical models, probability statements, and proportional reasoning to support explanations of trends in changes to populations over time.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Crosscutting Concept: Cause and Effect

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Background Articles (3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              MS-ESS1 Earth's Place in the Universe


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • MS-ESS1-1 Develop and use a model of the Earth-sun-moon system to describe the cyclic patterns of lunar phases, eclipses of the sun and moon, and seasons.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification Statement: Examples of models can be physical, graphical, or conceptual.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Crosscutting Concept: Patterns

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aligned Articles (4)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Background Articles (3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • MS-ESS1-2 Develop and use a model to describe the role of gravity in the motions within galaxies and the solar system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clarification Statement: Emphasis for the model is on gravity as the force that holds together the solar system and Milky Way galaxy and controls orbital motions within them. Examples of models can be physical (such as the analogy of distance along a football field or computer visualizations of elliptical orbits) or conceptual (such as mathematical proportions relative to the size of familiar objects such as students' school or state).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Assesssment Boundary: Assessment does not include Kepler's Laws of orbital motion or the apparent retrograde motion of the planets as viewed from Earth.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Crosscutting Concept: Systems and System Models

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • MS-ESS1-3 Analyze and interpret data to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Clarification Statement: Assessment does not include recalling facts about properties of the planets and other solar system bodies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Assesssment Boundary: Assessment does not include recalling facts about properties of the planets and other solar system bodies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Crosscutting Concept: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Background Articles (1)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MS-ESS1-4 Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence from rock strata for how the geologic time scale is used to organize Earth's 4.6-billion-year-old history.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how analyses of rock formations and the fossils they contain are used to establish relative ages of major events in Earth's history. Examples of Earth's major events could range from being very recent (such as the last Ice Age or the earliest fossils of homo sapiens) to very old (such as the formation of Earth or the earliest evidence of life). Examples can include the formation of mountain chains and ocean basins, the evolution or extinction of particular living organisms, or significant volcanic eruptions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Assesssment Boundary: Assessment does not include recalling the names of specific periods or epochs and events within them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Crosscutting Concept: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Aligned Articles (1)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Background Articles (1)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              MS-ESS2 Earth's Systems


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • MS-ESS2-1 Develop a model to describe the cycling of Earth's materials and the flow of energy that drives this process.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the processes of melting, crystallization, weathering, deformation, and sedimentation, which act together to form minerals and rocks through the cycling of Earth's materials.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Assesssment Boundary: Assessment does not include the identification and naming of minerals.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Crosscutting Concept: Stability and Change

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aligned Articles (5)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Background Articles (5)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • MS-ESS2-2 Construct an explanation based on evidence for how geoscience processes have changed Earth's surface at varying time and spatial scales.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how processes change Earth's surface at time and spatial scales that can be large (such as slow plate motions or the uplift of large mountain ranges) or small (such as rapid landslides or microscopic geochemical reactions), and how many geoscience processes (such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and meteor impacts) usually behave gradually but are punctuated by catastrophic events. Examples of geoscience processes include surface weathering and deposition by the movements of water, ice, and wind. Emphasis is on geoscience processes that shape local geographic features, where appropriate.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Crosscutting Concept: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Background Articles (8)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • MS-ESS2-3 Analyze and interpret data on the distribution of fossils and rocks, continental shapes, and seafloor structures to provide evidence of the past plate motions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Clarification Statement: Examples of data include similarities of rock and fossil types on different continents, the shapes of the continents (including continental shelves), and the locations of ocean structures (such as ridges, fracture zones, and trenches).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Assesssment Boundary: Paleomagnetic anomalies in oceanic and continental crust are not assessed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Crosscutting Concept: Patterns

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Aligned Articles (3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Background Articles (3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MS-ESS2-4 Develop a model to describe the cycling of water through Earth's systems driven by energy from the sun and the force of gravity.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the ways water changes its state as it moves through the multiple pathways of the hydrologic cycle. Examples of models can be conceptual or physical.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Assesssment Boundary: A quantitative understanding of the latent heats of vaporization and fusion is not assessed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Crosscutting Concept: Energy and Matter

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Aligned Articles (2)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Background Articles (2)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • MS-ESS2-5 Collect data to provide evidence for how the motions and complex interactions of air masses results in changes in weather conditions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how air masses flow from regions of high pressure to low pressure, causing weather (defined by temperature, pressure, humidity, precipitation, and wind) at a fixed location to change over time, and how sudden changes in weather can result when different air masses collide. Emphasis is on how weather can be predicted within probabilistic ranges. Examples of data can be provided to students (such as weather maps, diagrams, and visualizations) or obtained through laboratory experiments (such as with condensation).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Assesssment Boundary: Assessment does not include recalling the names of cloud types or weather symbols used on weather maps or the reported diagrams from weather stations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Crosscutting Concept: Cause and Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aligned Articles (2)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Background Articles (3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • MS-ESS2-6 Develop and use a model to describe how unequal heating and rotation of the Earth cause patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation that determine regional climates.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how patterns vary by latitude, altitude, and geographic land distribution. Emphasis of atmospheric circulation is on the sunlight-driven latitudinal banding, the Coriolis effect, and resulting prevailing winds; emphasis of ocean circulation is on the transfer of heat by the global ocean convection cycle, which is constrained by the Coriolis effect and the outlines of continents. Examples of models can be diagrams, maps and globes, or digital representations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Assesssment Boundary: Assessment does not include the dynamics of the Coriolis effect.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Crosscutting Concept: Systems and System Models

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Background Articles (5)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      MS-ESS3 Earth and Human Activity


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • MS-ESS3-1 Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how the uneven distributions of Earth's mineral, energy, and groundwater resources are the result of past and current geoscience processes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how these resources are limited and typically non-renewable, and how their distributions are significantly changing as a result of removal by humans. Examples of uneven distributions of resources as a result of past processes include but are not limited to petroleum (locations of the burial of organic marine sediments and subsequent geologic traps), metal ores (locations of past volcanic and hydrothermal activity associated with subduction zones), and soil (locations of active weathering and/or deposition of rock).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Crosscutting Concept: Cause and Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Aligned Articles (1)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Background Articles (1)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MS-ESS3-2 Analyze and interpret data on natural hazards to forecast future catastrophic events and inform the development of technologies to mitigate their effects.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how some natural hazards, such as volcanic eruptions and severe weather, are preceded by phenomena that allow for reliable predictions, but others, such as earthquakes, occur suddenly and with no notice, and thus are not yet predictable. Examples of natural hazards can be taken from interior processes (such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions), surface processes (such as mass wasting and tsunamis), or severe weather events (such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and floods). Examples of data can include the locations, magnitudes, and frequencies of the natural hazards. Examples of technologies can be global (such as satellite systems to monitor hurricanes or forest fires) or local (such as building basements in tornado- prone regions or reservoirs to mitigate droughts).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Crosscutting Concept: Patterns

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Aligned Articles (1)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Background Articles (5)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • MS-ESS3-3 Apply scientific principles to design a method for monitoring and minimizing a human impact on the environment.*

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification Statement: Examples of the design process include examining human environmental impacts, assessing the kinds of solutions that are feasible, and designing and evaluating solutions that could reduce that impact. Examples of human impacts can include water usage (such as the withdrawal of water from streams and aquifers or the construction of dams and levees), land usage (such as urban development, agriculture, or the removal of wetlands), and pollution (such as of the air, water, or land).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Crosscutting Concept: Cause and Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aligned Articles (0)

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • MS-ESS3-4 Construct an argument supported by evidence for how increases in human population and per-capita consumption of natural resources impact Earth's systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clarification Statement: Examples of evidence include grade-appropriate databases on human populations and the rates of consumption of food and natural resources (such as freshwater, mineral, and energy). Examples of impacts can include changes to the appearance, composition, and structure of Earth's systems as well as the rates at which they change. The consequences of increases in human populations and consumption of natural resources are described by science, but science does not make the decisions for the actions society takes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Crosscutting Concept: Cause and Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aligned Articles (0)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Background Articles (0)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • MS-ESS3-5 Ask questions to clarify evidence of the factors that have caused the rise in global temperatures over the past century.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Clarification Statement: Examples of factors include human activities (such as fossil fuel combustion, cement production, and agricultural activity) and natural processes (such as changes in incoming solar radiation or volcanic activity). Examples of evidence can include tables, graphs, and maps of global and regional temperatures, atmospheric levels of gases such as carbon dioxide and methane, and the rates of human activities. Emphasis is on the major role that human activities play in causing the rise in global temperatures.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Crosscutting Concept: Stability and Change

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Background Articles (0)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          MS-ETS1 Engineering Design


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MS-ETS1-1 Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Aligned Articles (0)

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • MS-ETS1-2 Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • MS-ETS1-3 Analyze data from tests to determine similarities and differences among several design solutions to identify the best characteristics of each that can be combined into a new solution to better meet the criteria for success.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • MS-ETS1-4 Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing and modification of a proposed object, tool, or process such that an optimal design can be achieved.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Patterns

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Observed patterns in nature guide organization and classification and prompt questions about relationships and causes underlying them.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MS-PS1-2 Analyze and interpret data on the properties of substances before and after the substances interact to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification Statement: Examples of reactions could include burning sugar or steel wool, fat reacting with sodium hydroxide, and mixing zinc with hydrogen chloride.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Asessment Bondary: Assessment is limited to analysis of the following properties: density, melting point, boiling point, solubility, flammability, and odor.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Aligned Articles (3)

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • MS-PS4-1 Use mathematical representations to describe a simple model for waves that includes how the amplitude of a wave is related to the energy in a wave.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on describing waves with both qualitative and quantitative thinking.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Asessment Bondary: Assessment does not include electromagnetic waves and is limited to standard repeating waves.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aligned Articles (0)

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • MS-LS2-2 Construct an explanation that predicts patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on predicting consistent patterns of interactions in different ecosystems in terms of the relationships among and between organisms and abiotic components of ecosystems. Examples of types of interactions could include competitive, predatory, and mutually beneficial.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aligned Articles (3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Background Articles (2)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • MS-LS4-1 Analyze and interpret data for patterns in the fossil record that document the existence, diversity, extinction, and change of life forms throughout the history of life on Earth under the assumption that natural laws operate today as in the past.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on finding patterns of changes in the level of complexity of anatomical structures in organisms and the chronological order of fossil appearance in the rock layers.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Asessment Bondary: Assessment does not include the names of individual species or geological eras in the fossil record.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Aligned Articles (1)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Background Articles (7)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MS-LS4-2 Apply scientific ideas to construct an explanation for the anatomical similarities and differences among modern organisms and between modern and fossil organisms to infer evolutionary relationships.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on explanations of the evolutionary relationships among organisms in terms of similarity or differences of the gross appearance of anatomical structures.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Aligned Articles (0)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Background Articles (5)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • MS-ESS1-1 Develop and use a model of the Earth-sun-moon system to describe the cyclic patterns of lunar phases, eclipses of the sun and moon, and seasons.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification Statement: Examples of models can be physical, graphical, or conceptual.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aligned Articles (4)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Background Articles (3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • MS-ESS2-3 Analyze and interpret data on the distribution of fossils and rocks, continental shapes, and seafloor structures to provide evidence of the past plate motions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clarification Statement: Examples of data include similarities of rock and fossil types on different continents, the shapes of the continents (including continental shelves), and the locations of ocean structures (such as ridges, fracture zones, and trenches).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Asessment Bondary: Paleomagnetic anomalies in oceanic and continental crust are not assessed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aligned Articles (3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Background Articles (3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • MS-ESS3-2 Analyze and interpret data on natural hazards to forecast future catastrophic events and inform the development of technologies to mitigate their effects.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how some natural hazards, such as volcanic eruptions and severe weather, are preceded by phenomena that allow for reliable predictions, but others, such as earthquakes, occur suddenly and with no notice, and thus are not yet predictable. Examples of natural hazards can be taken from interior processes (such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions), surface processes (such as mass wasting and tsunamis), or severe weather events (such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and floods). Examples of data can include the locations, magnitudes, and frequencies of the natural hazards. Examples of technologies can be global (such as satellite systems to monitor hurricanes or forest fires) or local (such as building basements in tornado- prone regions or reservoirs to mitigate droughts).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Aligned Articles (1)

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Cause and Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Events have causes, sometimes simple, sometimes multifaceted. Deciphering causal relationships, and the mechanisms by which they are mediated, is a major activity of science and engineering.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MS-PS1-4 Develop a model that predicts and describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on qualitative molecular-level models of solids, liquids, and gases to show that adding or removing thermal energy increases or decreases kinetic energy of the particles until a change of state occurs. Examples of models could include drawings and diagrams. Examples of particles could include molecules or inert atoms. Examples of pure substances could include water, carbon dioxide, and helium.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Aligned Articles (5)

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • MS-PS2-3 Ask questions about data to determine the factors that affect the strength of electric and magnetic forces.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification Statement: Examples of devices that use electric and magnetic forces could include electromagnets, electric motors, or generators. Examples of data could include the effect of the number of turns of wire on the strength of an electromagnet, or the effect of increasing the number or strength of magnets on the speed of an electric motor.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Asessment Bondary: Assessment about questions that require quantitative answers is limited to proportional reasoning and algebraic thinking.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aligned Articles (2)

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • MS-PS2-5 Conduct an investigation and evaluate the experimental design to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clarification Statement: Examples of this phenomenon could include the interactions of magnets, electrically-charged strips of tape, and electrically-charged pith balls. Examples of investigations could include first-hand experiences or simulations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Asessment Bondary: Assessment is limited to electric and magnetic fields, and limited to qualitative evidence for the existence of fields.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aligned Articles (0)

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • MS-LS1-4 Use argument based on empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support an explanation for how characteristic animal behaviors and specialized plant structures affect the probability of successful reproduction of animals and plants respectively.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Clarification Statement: Examples of behaviors that affect the probability of animal reproduction could include nest building to protect young from cold, herding of animals to protect young from predators, and vocalization of animals and colorful plumage to attract mates for breeding. Examples of animal behaviors that affect the probability of plant reproduction could include transferring pollen or seeds, and creating conditions for seed germination and growth. Examples of plant structures could include bright flowers attracting butterflies that transfer pollen, flower nectar and odors that attract insects that transfer pollen, and hard shells on nuts that squirrels bury.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Aligned Articles (1)

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MS-LS1-5 Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how environmental and genetic factors influence the growth of organisms.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification Statement: Examples of local environmental conditions could include availability of food, light, space, and water. Examples of genetic factors could include large breed cattle and species of grass affecting growth of organisms. Examples of evidence could include drought decreasing plant growth, fertilizer increasing plant growth, different varieties of plant seeds growing at different rates in different conditions, and fish growing larger in large ponds than they do in small ponds.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Asessment Bondary: Assessment does not include genetic mechanisms, gene regulation, or biochemical processes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Aligned Articles (4)

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • MS-LS1-8 Gather and synthesize information that sensory receptors respond to stimuli by sending messages to the brain for immediate behavior or storage as memories.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Asessment Bondary: Assessment does not include mechanisms for the transmission of this information.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aligned Articles (1)

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • MS-LS2-1 Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on cause and effect relationships between resources and growth of individual organisms and the numbers of organisms in ecosystems during periods of abundant and scarce resources.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aligned Articles (1)

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • MS-LS3-2 Develop and use a model to describe why asexual reproduction results in offspring with identical genetic information and sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using models such as Punnett squares, diagrams, and simulations to describe the cause and effect relationship of gene transmission from parent(s) to offspring and resulting genetic variation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Aligned Articles (2)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Background Articles (5)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MS-LS4-4 Construct an explanation based on evidence that describes how genetic variations of traits in a population increase some individuals' probability of surviving and reproducing in a specific environment.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using simple probability statements and proportional reasoning to construct explanations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Aligned Articles (1)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Background Articles (5)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • MS-LS4-5 Gather and synthesize information about the technologies that have changed the way humans influence the inheritance of desired traits in organisms.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on synthesizing information from reliable sources about the influence of humans on genetic outcomes in artificial selection (such as genetic modification, animal husbandry, gene therapy); and, on the impacts these technologies have on society as well as the technologies leading to these scientific discoveries.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • MS-LS4-6 Use mathematical representations to support explanations of how natural selection may lead to increases and decreases of specific traits in populations over time.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using mathematical models, probability statements, and proportional reasoning to support explanations of trends in changes to populations over time.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • MS-ESS2-5 Collect data to provide evidence for how the motions and complex interactions of air masses results in changes in weather conditions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how air masses flow from regions of high pressure to low pressure, causing weather (defined by temperature, pressure, humidity, precipitation, and wind) at a fixed location to change over time, and how sudden changes in weather can result when different air masses collide. Emphasis is on how weather can be predicted within probabilistic ranges. Examples of data can be provided to students (such as weather maps, diagrams, and visualizations) or obtained through laboratory experiments (such as with condensation).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Asessment Bondary: Assessment does not include recalling the names of cloud types or weather symbols used on weather maps or the reported diagrams from weather stations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MS-ESS3-1 Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how the uneven distributions of Earth's mineral, energy, and groundwater resources are the result of past and current geoscience processes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how these resources are limited and typically non-renewable, and how their distributions are significantly changing as a result of removal by humans. Examples of uneven distributions of resources as a result of past processes include but are not limited to petroleum (locations of the burial of organic marine sediments and subsequent geologic traps), metal ores (locations of past volcanic and hydrothermal activity associated with subduction zones), and soil (locations of active weathering and/or deposition of rock).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In considering phenomena, it is critical to recognize what is relevant at different size, time, and energy scales, and to recognize proportional relationships between different quantities as scales change.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • MS-PS1-1 Develop models to describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on developing models of molecules that vary in complexity. Examples of simple molecules could include ammonia and methanol. Examples of extended structures could include sodium chloride or diamonds. Examples of molecular-level models could include drawings, 3D ball and stick structures, or computer representations showing different molecules with different types of atoms.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Asessment Bondary: Assessment does not include valence electrons and bonding energy, discussing the ionic nature of subunits of complex structures, or a complete depiction of all individual atoms in a complex molecule or extended structure.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aligned Articles (2)

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • MS-PS3-1 Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to describe the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass of an object and to the speed of an object.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on descriptive relationships between kinetic energy and mass separately from kinetic energy and speed. Examples could include riding a bicycle at different speeds, rolling different sizes of rocks downhill, and getting hit by a wiffle ball versus a tennis ball.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • MS-PS3-4 Plan an investigation to determine the relationships among the energy transferred, the type of matter, the mass, and the change in the average kinetic energy of the particles as measured by the temperature of the sample.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Clarification Statement: Examples of experiments could include comparing final water temperatures after different masses of ice melted in the same volume of water with the same initial temperature, the temperature change of samples of different materials with the same mass as they cool or heat in the environment, or the same material with different masses when a specific amount of energy is added.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Asessment Bondary: Assessment does not include calculating the total amount of thermal energy transferred.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MS-LS1-1 Conduct an investigation to provide evidence that living things are made of cells; either one cell or many different numbers and types of cells.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on developing evidence that living things are made of cells, distinguishing between living and non-living things, and understanding that living things may be made of one cell or many and varied cells.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Aligned Articles (2)

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • MS-ESS1-3 Analyze and interpret data to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification Statement: Assessment does not include recalling facts about properties of the planets and other solar system bodies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Asessment Bondary: Assessment does not include recalling facts about properties of the planets and other solar system bodies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aligned Articles (0)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Background Articles (1)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • MS-ESS1-4 Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence from rock strata for how the geologic time scale is used to organize Earth's 4.6-billion-year-old history.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how analyses of rock formations and the fossils they contain are used to establish relative ages of major events in Earth's history. Examples of Earth's major events could range from being very recent (such as the last Ice Age or the earliest fossils of homo sapiens) to very old (such as the formation of Earth or the earliest evidence of life). Examples can include the formation of mountain chains and ocean basins, the evolution or extinction of particular living organisms, or significant volcanic eruptions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Asessment Bondary: Assessment does not include recalling the names of specific periods or epochs and events within them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aligned Articles (1)

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • MS-ESS2-2 Construct an explanation based on evidence for how geoscience processes have changed Earth's surface at varying time and spatial scales.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how processes change Earth's surface at time and spatial scales that can be large (such as slow plate motions or the uplift of large mountain ranges) or small (such as rapid landslides or microscopic geochemical reactions), and how many geoscience processes (such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and meteor impacts) usually behave gradually but are punctuated by catastrophic events. Examples of geoscience processes include surface weathering and deposition by the movements of water, ice, and wind. Emphasis is on geoscience processes that shape local geographic features, where appropriate.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Background Articles (8)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Systems and System Models

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A system is an organized group of related objects or components; models can be used for understanding and predicting the behavior of systems.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MS-PS2-1 Apply Newton's Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects.*

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification Statement: Examples of practical problems could include the impact of collisions between two cars, between a car and stationary objects, and between a meteor and a space vehicle.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Asessment Bondary: Assessment is limited to vertical or horizontal interactions in one dimension.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Aligned Articles (1)

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • MS-PS2-4 Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification Statement: Examples of evidence for arguments could include data generated from simulations or digital tools; and charts displaying mass, strength of interaction, distance from the Sun, and orbital periods of objects within the solar system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Asessment Bondary: Assessment does not include Newton's Law of Gravitation or Kepler's Laws.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aligned Articles (1)

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • MS-PS3-2 Develop a model to describe that when the arrangement of objects interacting at a distance changes, different amounts of potential energy are stored in the system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on relative amounts of potential energy, not on calculations of potential energy. Examples of objects within systems interacting at varying distances could include: the Earth and either a roller coaster cart at varying positions on a hill or objects at varying heights on shelves, changing the direction/orientation of a magnet, and a balloon with static electrical charge being brought closer to a classmate's hair. Examples of models could include representations, diagrams, pictures, and written descriptions of systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Asessment Bondary: Assessment is limited to two objects and electric, magnetic, and gravitational interactions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aligned Articles (0)

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • MS-LS1-3 Use arguments supported by evidence for how the body is a system of interacting subsystems composed of groups of cells.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the conceptual understanding that cells form tissues and tissues form organs specialized for particular body functions. Examples could include the interaction of subsystems within a system and the normal functioning of those systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Asessment Bondary: Assessment does not include the mechanism of one body system independent of others. Assessment is limited to the circulatory, excretory, digestive, respiratory, muscular, and nervous systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Aligned Articles (1)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Background Articles (3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MS-ESS1-2 Develop and use a model to describe the role of gravity in the motions within galaxies and the solar system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification Statement: Emphasis for the model is on gravity as the force that holds together the solar system and Milky Way galaxy and controls orbital motions within them. Examples of models can be physical (such as the analogy of distance along a football field or computer visualizations of elliptical orbits) or conceptual (such as mathematical proportions relative to the size of familiar objects such as students' school or state).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Asessment Bondary: Assessment does not include Kepler's Laws of orbital motion or the apparent retrograde motion of the planets as viewed from Earth.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Aligned Articles (0)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Background Articles (6)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • MS-ESS2-6 Develop and use a model to describe how unequal heating and rotation of the Earth cause patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation that determine regional climates.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how patterns vary by latitude, altitude, and geographic land distribution. Emphasis of atmospheric circulation is on the sunlight-driven latitudinal banding, the Coriolis effect, and resulting prevailing winds; emphasis of ocean circulation is on the transfer of heat by the global ocean convection cycle, which is constrained by the Coriolis effect and the outlines of continents. Examples of models can be diagrams, maps and globes, or digital representations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Asessment Bondary: Assessment does not include the dynamics of the Coriolis effect.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Energy and Matter

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Tracking energy and matter flows, into, out of, and within systems helps one understand their system's behavior.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • MS-PS1-5 Develop and use a model to describe how the total number of atoms does not change in a chemical reaction and thus mass is conserved.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on law of conservation of matter and on physical models or drawings, including digital forms, that represent atoms.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Asessment Bondary: Assessment does not include the use of atomic masses, balancing symbolic equations, or intermolecular forces.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aligned Articles (1)

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • MS-PS1-6 Undertake a design project to construct, test, and modify a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical processes.*

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the design, controlling the transfer of energy to the environment, and modification of a device using factors such as type and concentration of a substance. Examples of designs could involve chemical reactions such as dissolving ammonium chloride or calcium chloride.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Asessment Bondary: Assessment is limited to the criteria of amount, time, and temperature of substance in testing the device.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MS-PS3-3 Apply scientific principles to design, construct, and test a device that either minimizes or maximizes thermal energy transfer.*

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification Statement: Examples of devices could include an insulated box, a solar cooker, and a Styrofoam cup.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Asessment Bondary: Assessment does not include calculating the total amount of thermal energy transferred.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Aligned Articles (0)

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • MS-PS3-5 Construct, use, and present arguments to support the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification Statement: Examples of empirical evidence used in arguments could include an inventory or other representation of the energy before and after the transfer in the form of temperature changes or motion of object.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Asessment Bondary: Assessment does not include calculations of energy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aligned Articles (0)

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • MS-LS1-6 Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for the role of photosynthesis in the cycling of matter and flow of energy into and out of organisms.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on tracing movement of matter and flow of energy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Asessment Bondary: Assessment does not include the biochemical mechanisms of photosynthesis.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aligned Articles (2)

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • MS-LS1-7 Develop a model to describe how food is rearranged through chemical reactions forming new molecules that support growth and/or release energy as this matter moves through an organism.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on describing that molecules are broken apart and put back together and that in this process, energy is released.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Asessment Bondary: Assessment does not include details of the chemical reactions for photosynthesis or respiration.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MS-LS2-3 Develop a model to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy among living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on describing the conservation of matter and flow of energy into and out of various ecosystems, and on defining the boundaries of the system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Asessment Bondary: Assessment does not include the use of chemical reactions to describe the processes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • MS-ESS2-4 Develop a model to describe the cycling of water through Earth's systems driven by energy from the sun and the force of gravity.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the ways water changes its state as it moves through the multiple pathways of the hydrologic cycle. Examples of models can be conceptual or physical.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Asessment Bondary: A quantitative understanding of the latent heats of vaporization and fusion is not assessed.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Structure and Function

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The way an object is shaped or structured determines many of its properties and functions.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • MS-PS1-3 Gather and make sense of information to describe that synthetic materials come from natural resources and impact society.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on natural resources that undergo a chemical process to form the synthetic material. Examples of new materials could include new medicine, foods, and alternative fuels.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Asessment Bondary: Assessment is limited to qualitative information.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aligned Articles (2)

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • MS-PS4-2 Develop and use a model to describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both light and mechanical waves. Examples of models could include drawings, simulations, and written descriptions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Asessment Bondary: Assessment is limited to qualitative applications pertaining to light and mechanical waves.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Aligned Articles (1)

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MS-PS4-3 Integrate qualitative scientific and technical information to support the claim that digitized signals are a more reliable way to encode and transmit information than analog signals.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on a basic understanding that waves can be used for communication purposes. Examples could include using fiber optic cable to transmit light pulses, radio wave pulses in wifi devices, and conversion of stored binary patterns to make sound or text on a computer screen.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Asessment Bondary: Assessment does not include binary counting. Assessment does not include the specific mechanism of any given device.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • MS-LS1-2 Develop and use a model to describe the function of a cell as a whole and ways parts of cells contribute to the function.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the cell functioning as a whole system and the primary role of identified parts of the cell, specifically the nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria, cell membrane, and cell wall.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Asessment Bondary: Assessment of organelle structure/function relationships is limited to the cell wall and cell membrane. Assessment of the function of the other organelles is limited to their relationship to the whole cell. Assessment does not include the biochemical function of cells or cell parts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • MS-LS3-1 Develop and use a model to describe why structural changes to genes (mutations) located on chromosomes may affect proteins and may result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and function of the organism.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on conceptual understanding that changes in genetic material may result in making different proteins.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Asessment Bondary: Assessment does not include specific changes at the molecular level, mechanisms for protein synthesis, or specific types of mutations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Stability and Change

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      For both designed and natural systems, conditions that affect stability and factors that control rates of change are critical elements to consider and understand.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • MS-PS2-2 Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object's motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on balanced (Newton's First Law) and unbalanced forces in a system, qualitative comparisons of forces, mass and changes in motion (Newton's Second Law), frame of reference, and specification of units.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Asessment Bondary: Assessment is limited to forces and changes in motion in one-dimension in an inertial reference frame and to change in one variable at a time. Assessment does not include the use of trigonometry.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MS-LS2-5 Evaluate competing design solutions for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services.*

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification Statement: Examples of ecosystem services could include water purification, nutrient recycling, and prevention of soil erosion. Examples of design solution constraints could include scientific, economic, and social considerations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • MS-ESS2-1 Develop a model to describe the cycling of Earth's materials and the flow of energy that drives this process.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the processes of melting, crystallization, weathering, deformation, and sedimentation, which act together to form minerals and rocks through the cycling of Earth's materials.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Asessment Bondary: Assessment does not include the identification and naming of minerals.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6.5 Matter and Energy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The student knows the differences between elements and compounds.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • A. Know that an element is a pure substance represented by chemical symbols.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • B. Recognize that a limited number of the many known elements comprise the largest portion of solid Earth, living matter, oceans, and the atmosphere.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • C. Differentiate between elements and compounds on the most basic level.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • D. Identify the formation of a new substance by using the evidence of a possible chemical change such as production of a gas, change in temperature, production of a precipitate, or color change.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6.6 Matter and Energy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The student knows matter has physical properties that can be used for classification.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • A. Compare metals, nonmetals, and metalloids using physical properties such as luster, conductivity, or malleability.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • B. Calculate density to identify an unknown substance.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • C. Test the physical properties of minerals, including hardness, color, luster, and streak.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6.7 Matter and Energy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The student knows that some of Earth's energy resources are available on a nearly perpetual basis, while others can be renewed over a relatively short period of time. Some energy resources, once depleted, are essentially nonrenewable.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • A. Research and debate the advantages and disadvantages of using coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear power, biomass, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar resources.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • B. Design a logical plan to manage energy resources in the home, school, or community.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6.8 Force, Motion, and Energy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The student knows force and motion are related to potential and kinetic energy.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • A. Compare and contrast potential and kinetic energy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • B. Identify and describe the changes in position, direction, and speed of an object when acted upon by unbalanced forces.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • C. Calculate average speed using distance and time measurements.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • D. Measure and graph changes in motion.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • E. Investigate how inclined planes and pulleys can be used to change the amount of force to move an object.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6.9 Force, Motion, and Energy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The student knows that the Law of Conservation of Energy states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it just changes form.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • A. Investigate methods of thermal energy transfer, including conduction, convection, and radiation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • B. Verify through investigations that thermal energy moves in a predictable pattern from warmer to cooler until all the substances attain the same temperature such as an ice cube melting.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • C. Demonstrate energy transformations such as energy in a flashlight battery changes from chemical energy to electrical energy to light energy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6.10 Earth and Space

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The student understands the structure of Earth, the rock cycle, and plate tectonics.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • A. Build a model to illustrate the structural layers of Earth, including the inner core, outer core, mantle, crust, asthenosphere, and lithosphere.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • B. Classify rocks as metamorphic, igneous, or sedimentary by the processes of their formation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • C. Identify the major tectonic plates, including Eurasian, African, Indo-Australian, Pacific, North American, and South American.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • D. Describe how plate tectonics causes major geological events such as ocean basins, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6.11 Earth and Space

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The student understands the organization of our solar system and the relationships among the various bodies that comprise it.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • A. Describe the physical properties, locations, and movements of the Sun, planets, Galilean moons, meteors, asteroids, and comets.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • B. Understand that gravity is the force that governs the motion of our solar system.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • C. Describe the history and future of space exploration, including the types of equipment and transportation needed for space travel.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6.12 Organisms and Environments

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The student knows all organisms are classified into Domains and Kingdoms. Organisms within these taxonomic groups share similar characteristics which allow them to interact with the living and nonliving parts of their ecosystem.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • A. Understand that all organisms are composed of one or more cells.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • B. Recognize that the presence of a nucleus determines whether a cell is prokaryotic or eukaryotic.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • C. Recognize that the broadest taxonomic classification of living organisms is divided into currently recognized Domains.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • D. Identify the basic characteristics of organisms, including prokaryotic or eukaryotic, unicellular or multicellular, autotrophic or heterotrophic, and mode of reproduction, that further classify them in the currently recognized Kingdoms.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • E. Describe biotic and abiotic parts of an ecosystem in which organisms interact.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • F. Diagram the levels of organization within an ecosystem, including organism, population, community, and ecosystem.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7.5 Matter and Energy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The student knows that interactions occur between matter and energy.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • A. Recognize that radiant energy from the Sun is transformed into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • B. Demonstrate and explain the cycling of matter within living systems such as in the decay of biomass in a compost bin.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • C. Diagram the flow of energy through living systems, including food chains, food webs, and energy pyramids.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7.6 Matter and Energy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The student knows that matter has physical and chemical properties and can undergo physical and chemical changes.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • A. Identify that organic compounds contain carbon and other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, nitrogen, or sulfur.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • B. Distinguish between physical and chemical changes in matter in the digestive system.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • C. Recognize how large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules such as carbohydrates can be broken down into sugars.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7.7 Force, Motion, and Energy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The student knows that there is a relationship among force, motion, and energy.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • A. Contrast situations where work is done with different amounts of force to situations where no work is done such as moving a box with a ramp and without a ramp, or standing still.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • B. Illustrate the transformation of energy within an organism such as the transfer from chemical energy to heat and thermal energy in digestion.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • C. Demonstrate and illustrate forces that affect motion in everyday life such as emergence of seedlings, turgor pressure, and geotropism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7.8 Earth and Space

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The student knows that natural events and human activity can impact Earth systems.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • A. Predict and describe how different types of catastrophic events impact ecosystems such as floods, hurricanes, or tornadoes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • B. Analyze the effects of weathering, erosion, and deposition on the environment in ecoregions of Texas.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • C. Model the effects of human activity on groundwater and surface water in a watershed.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7.9 Earth and Space

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The student knows components of our solar system.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • A. Analyze the characteristics of objects in our solar system that allow life to exist such as the proximity of the Sun, presence of water, and composition of the atmosphere.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • B. Identify the accommodations, considering the characteristics of our solar system, that enabled manned space exploration.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7.10 Organisms and Environments

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The student knows that there is a relationship between organisms and the environment.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • A. Observe and describe how different environments, including microhabitats in schoolyards and biomes, support different varieties of organisms.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • B. Describe how biodiversity contributes to the sustainability of an ecosystem.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • C. Observe, record, and describe the role of ecological succession such as in a microhabitat of a garden with weeds.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7.11 Organisms and Environments

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The student knows that populations and species demonstrate variation and inherit many of their unique traits through gradual processes over many generations.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • A. Examine organisms or their structures such as insects or leaves and use dichotomous keys for identification.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • B. Explain variation within a population or species by comparing external features, behaviors, or physiology of organisms that enhance their survival such as migration, hibernation, or storage of food in a bulb.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • C. Identify some changes in genetic traits that have occurred over several generations through natural selection and selective breeding such as the Galapagos Medium Ground Finch (Geospiza fortis) or domestic animals.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7.12 Organisms and Environments

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The student knows that living systems at all levels of organization demonstrate the complementary nature of structure and function.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • A. Investigate and explain how internal structures of organisms have adaptations that allow specific functions such as gills in fish, hollow bones in birds, or xylem in plants.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • B. Identify the main functions of the systems of the human organism, including the circulatory, respiratory, skeletal, muscular, digestive, excretory, reproductive, integumentary, nervous, and endocrine systems.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • C. Recognize levels of organization in plants and animals, including cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • D. Differentiate between structure and function in plant and animal cell organelles, including cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion, chloroplast, and vacuole.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • E. Compare the functions of a cell to the functions of organisms such as waste removal.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • F. Recognize that according to cell theory all organisms are composed of cells and cells carry on similar functions such as extracting energy from food to sustain life.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7.13 Organisms and Environments

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The student knows that a living organism must be able to maintain balance in stable internal conditions in response to external and internal stimuli.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • A. Investigate how organisms respond to external stimuli found in the environment such as phototropism and fight or flight.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • B. Describe and relate responses in organisms that may result from internal stimuli such as wilting in plants and fever or vomiting in animals that allow them to maintain balance.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7.14 Organisms and Environments

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The student knows that reproduction is a characteristic of living organisms and that the instructions for traits are governed in the genetic material.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • A. Define heredity as the passage of genetic instructions from one generation to the next generation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • B. Compare the results of uniform or diverse offspring from sexual reproduction or asexual reproduction.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • C. Recognize that inherited traits of individuals are governed in the genetic material found in the genes within chromosomes in the nucleus.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      8.5 Matter and Energy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The student knows that matter is composed of atoms and has chemical and physical properties.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • A. Describe the structure of atoms, including the masses, electrical charges, and locations, of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and electrons in the electron cloud.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • B. Identify that protons determine an element's identity and valence electrons determine its chemical properties, including reactivity.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • C. Interpret the arrangement of the Periodic Table, including groups and periods, to explain how properties are used to classify elements.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • D. Recognize that chemical formulas are used to identify substances and determine the number of atoms of each element in chemical formulas containing subscripts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • E. Investigate how evidence of chemical reactions indicate that new substances with different properties are formed.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • F. Recognize whether a chemical equation containing coefficients is balanced or not and how that relates to the law of conservation of mass.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8.6 Force, Motion, and Energy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The student knows that there is a relationship between force, motion, and energy.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • A. Demonstrate and calculate how unbalanced forces change the speed or direction of an object's motion.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • B. Differentiate between speed, velocity, and acceleration.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • C. Investigate and describe applications of Newton's law of inertia, law of force and acceleration, and law of action-reaction such as in vehicle restraints, sports activities, amusement park rides, Earth's tectonic activities, and rocket launches.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          8.7 Earth and Space

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The student knows the effects resulting from cyclical movements of the Sun, Earth, and Moon.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • A. Model and illustrate how the tilted Earth rotates on its axis, causing day and night, and revolves around the Sun causing changes in seasons.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • B. Demonstrate and predict the sequence of events in the lunar cycle.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • C. Relate the position of the Moon and Sun to their effect on ocean tides.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      8.8 Earth and Space

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The student knows characteristics of the universe.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • A. Describe components of the universe, including stars, nebulae, and galaxies, and use models such as the Herztsprung-Russell diagram for classification.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • B. Recognize that the Sun is a medium-sized star near the edge of a disc-shaped galaxy of stars and that the Sun is many thousands of times closer to Earth than any other star.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • C. Explore how different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum such as light and radio waves are used to gain information about distances and properties of components in the universe.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • D. Model and describe how light years are used to measure distances and sizes in the universe.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • E. Research how scientific data are used as evidence to develop scientific theories to describe the origin of the universe.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          8.9 Earth and Space

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The student knows that natural events can impact Earth systems.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • A. Describe the historical development of evidence that supports plate tectonic theory.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • B. Relate plate tectonics to the formation of crustal features.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • C. Interpret topographic maps and satellite views to identify land and erosional features and predict how these features may be reshaped by weathering.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      8.10 Earth and Space

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The student knows that climatic interactions exist among Earth, ocean, and weather systems.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • A. Recognize that the Sun provides the energy that drives convection within the atmosphere and oceans, producing winds and ocean currents.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • B. Identify how global patterns of atmospheric movement influence local weather using weather maps that show high and low pressures and fronts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • C. Identify the role of the oceans in the formation of weather systems such as hurricanes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8.11 Organisms and Environments

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The student knows that interdependence occurs among living systems and the environment and that human activities can affect these systems.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • A. Describe producer/consumer, predator/prey, and parasite/host relationships as they occur in food webs within marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • B. Investigate how organisms and populations in an ecosystem depend on and may compete for biotic and abiotic factors such as quantity of light, water, range of temperatures, or soil composition.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • C. Explore how short- and long-term environmental changes affect organisms and traits in subsequent populations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • D. Recognize human dependence on ocean systems and explain how human activities such as runoff, artificial reefs, or use of resources have modified these systems.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6.SC.6.N.1 Nature of Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A: Scientific inquiry is a multifaceted activity; The processes of science include the formulation of scientifically investigable questions, construction of investigations into those questions, the collection of appropriate data, the evaluation of the meaning of those data, and the communication of this evaluation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  B: The processes of science frequently do not correspond to the traditional portrayal of "the scientific method."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  C: Scientific argumentation is a necessary part of scientific inquiry and plays an important role in the generation and validation of scientific knowledge.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  D: Scientific knowledge is based on observation and inference; it is important to recognize that these are very different things. Not only does science require creativity in its methods and processes, but also in its questions and explanations.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • A. Define a problem from the sixth grade curriculum, use appropriate reference materials to support scientific understanding, plan and carry out scientific investigation of various types, such as systematic observations or experiments, identify variables, collect and organize data, interpret data in charts, tables, and graphics, analyze information, make predictions, and defend conclusions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • B. Explain why scientific investigations should be replicable.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • C. Explain the difference between an experiment and other types of scientific investigation, and explain the relative benefits and limitations of each.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • D. Discuss, compare, and negotiate methods used, results obtained, and explanations among groups of students conducting the same investigation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • E. Recognize that science involves creativity, not just in designing experiments, but also in creating explanations that fit evidence.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6.SC.6.N.2 Nature of Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A: Scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence, and is appropriate for understanding the natural world, but it provides only a limited understanding of the supernatural, aesthetic, or other ways of knowing, such as art, philosophy, or religion.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      B: Scientific knowledge is durable and robust, but open to change.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      C: Because science is based on empirical evidence it strives for objectivity, but as it is a human endeavor the processes, methods, and knowledge of science include subjectivity, as well as creativity and discovery.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • A. Distinguish science from other activities involving thought.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • B. Explain that scientific knowledge is durable because it is open to change as new evidence or interpretations are encountered.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • C. Recognize that scientists who make contributions to scientific knowledge come from all kinds of backgrounds and possess varied talents, interests, and goals.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6.SC.6.N.3 Nature of Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The terms that describe examples of scientific knowledge, for example; "theory," "law," "hypothesis," and "model" have very specific meanings and functions within science.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • A. Recognize and explain that a scientific theory is a well-supported and widely accepted explanation of nature and is not simply a claim posed by an individual. Thus, the use of the term theory in science is very different than how it is used in everyday life.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • B. Recognize and explain that a scientific law is a description of a specific relationship under given conditions in the natural world. Thus, scientific laws are different from societal laws.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • C. Give several examples of scientific laws.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • D. Identify the role of models in the context of the sixth grade science benchmarks.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6.SC.6.E.6 Earth and Space Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Over geologic time, internal and external sources of energy have continuously altered the features of Earth by means of both constructive and destructive forces. All life, including human civilization, is dependent on Earth's internal and external energy and material resources.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • A. Describe and give examples of ways in which Earth's surface is built up and torn down by physical and chemical weathering, erosion, and deposition.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • B. Recognize that there are a variety of different landforms on Earth's surface such as coastlines, dunes, rivers, mountains, glaciers, deltas, and lakes and relate these landforms as they apply to Florida.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6.SC.6.E.7 Earth and Space Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The scientific theory of the evolution of Earth states that changes in our planet are driven by the flow of energy and the cycling of matter through dynamic interactions among the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, and biosphere, and the resources used to sustain human civilization on Earth.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • A. Differentiate among radiation, conduction, and convection, the three mechanisms by which heat is transferred through Earth's system.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • B. Investigate and apply how the cycling of water between the atmosphere and hydrosphere has an effect on weather patterns and climate.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • C. Describe how global patterns such as the jet stream and ocean currents influence local weather in measurable terms such as temperature, air pressure, wind direction and speed, and humidity and precipitation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • D. show interactions among the geosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • E. Explain how energy provided by the sun influences global patterns of atmospheric movement and the temperature differences between air, water, and land.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • F. Differentiate between weather and climate.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • G. Investigate how natural disasters have affected human life in Florida.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • H. Describe ways human beings protect themselves from hazardous weather and sun

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • I. Describe how the composition and structure of the atmosphere protects life and insulates the planet.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6.SC.6.P.11 Physical Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A. Waves involve a transfer of energy without a transfer of matter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              B. Water and sound waves transfer energy through a material.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              C. Light waves can travel through a vacuum and through matter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              D. The Law of Conservation of Energy: Energy is conserved as it transfers from one object to another and from one form to another.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • A. Explore the Law of Conservation of Energy by differentiating between potential and kinetic energy. Identify situations where kinetic energy is transformed into potential energy and vice versa.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6.SC.6.P.12 Physical Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A. Motion is a key characteristic of all matter that can be observed, described, and measured.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  B. The motion of objects can be changed by forces.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • A. Measure and graph distance versus time for an object moving at a constant speed. Interpret this relationship.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6.SC.6.P.13 Physical Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A. It takes energy to change the motion of objects.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      B. Energy change is understood in terms of forces--pushes or pulls.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      C. Some forces act through physical contact, while others act at a distance.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Clarification for grades K-5: The target understanding for students in the elementary grades should focus on Big Ideas A, B, and C.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Clarification for grades 6-8: The target understanding for students in grades 6-8 should begin to transition the focus to a more specific definition of forces and changes in motion. Net forces create a change in motion. A change in momentum occurs when a net force is applied to an object over a time interval.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Grades 9-12, Standard 12: Motion - A. Motion can be measured and described qualitatively and quantitatively. Net forces create a change in motion. B. Momentum is conserved under well-defined conditions. A change in momentum occurs when a net force is applied to an object over a time interval.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Loading Articles...

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • B. Investigate and describe types of forces including contact forces and forces acting at a distance, such as electrical, magnetic, and gravitational.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • C. Explore the Law of Gravity by recognizing that every object exerts gravitational force on every other object and that the force depends on how much mass the objects have and how far apart they are.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • D. Investigate and describe that an unbalanced force acting on an object changes its speed, or direction of motion, or both.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6.SC.6.L.14 Life Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A. All living things share certain characteristics.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      B. The scientific theory of cells, also called cell theory, is a fundamental organizing principle of life on Earth.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      C. Life can be organized in a functional and structural hierarchy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      D. Life is maintained by various physiological functions essential for growth, reproduction, and homeostasis.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • A. Describe and identify patterns in the hierarchical organization of organisms from atoms to molecules and cells to tissues to organs to organ systems to organisms.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • B. Investigate and explain the components of the scientific theory of cells (cell theory): all organisms are composed of cells (single-celled or multi-cellular), all cells come from pre-existing cells, and cells are the basic unit of life.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • C. Recognize and explore how cells of all organisms undergo similar processes to maintain homeostasis, including extracting energy from food, getting rid of waste, and reproducing.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • D. Compare and contrast the structure and function of major organelles of plant and animal cells, including cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, mitochondria, and vacuoles.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • E. Identify and investigate the general functions of the major systems of the human body (digestive, respiratory, circulatory, reproductive, excretory, immune, nervous, and musculoskeletal) and describe ways these systems interact with each other to maintain homeostasis.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • F. Compare and contrast types of infectious agents that may infect the human body, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6.SC.6.L.15 Life Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A. The scientific theory of evolution is the organizing principle of life science.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              B. The scientific theory of evolution is supported by multiple forms of evidence.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              C. Natural Selection is a primary mechanism leading to change over time in organisms.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • A. Analyze and describe how and why organisms are classified according to shared characteristics with emphasis on the Linnaean system combined with the concept of Domains.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7.SC.7.N.1 Nature of Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A: Scientific inquiry is a multifaceted activity; The processes of science include the formulation of scientifically investigable questions, construction of investigations into those questions, the collection of appropriate data, the evaluation of the meaning of those data, and the communication of this evaluation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  B: The processes of science frequently do not correspond to the traditional portrayal of "the scientific method."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  C: Scientific argumentation is a necessary part of scientific inquiry and plays an important role in the generation and validation of scientific knowledge.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  D: Scientific knowledge is based on observation and inference; it is important to recognize that these are very different things. Not only does science require creativity in its methods and processes, but also in its questions and explanations.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • A. Define a problem from the seventh grade curriculum, use appropriate reference materials to support scientific understanding, plan and carry out scientific investigation of various types, such as systematic observations or experiments, identify variables, collect and organize data, interpret data in charts, tables, and graphics, analyze information, make predictions, and defend conclusions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • B. Differentiate replication (by others) from repetition (multiple trials).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • C. Distinguish between an experiment (which must involve the identification and control of variables) and other forms of scientific investigation and explain that not all scientific knowledge is derived from experimentation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • D. Identify test variables (independent variables) and outcome variables (dependent variables) in an experiment.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • E. Explain that empirical evidence is the cumulative body of observations of a natural phenomenon on which scientific explanations are based.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • F. Explain that scientific knowledge is the result of a great deal of debate and confirmation within the science community.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7.SC.7.N.2 Nature of Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A: Scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence, and is appropriate for understanding the natural world, but it provides only a limited understanding of the supernatural, aesthetic, or other ways of knowing, such as art, philosophy, or religion.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          B: Scientific knowledge is durable and robust, but open to change.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          C: Because science is based on empirical evidence it strives for objectivity, but as it is a human endeavor the processes, methods, and knowledge of science include subjectivity, as well as creativity and discovery.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • A. Identify an instance from the history of science in which scientific knowledge has changed when new evidence or new interpretations are encountered.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7.SC.7.N.3 Nature of Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The terms that describe examples of scientific knowledge, for example; "theory," "law," "hypothesis," and "model" have very specific meanings and functions within science.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • A. Recognize and explain the difference between theories and laws and give several examples of scientific theories and the evidence that supports them.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • B. Identify the benefits and limitations of the use of scientific models.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7.SC.7.E.6 Earth and Space Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Over geologic time, internal and external sources of energy have continuously altered the features of Earth by means of both constructive and destructive forces. All life, including human civilization, is dependent on Earth's internal and external energy and material resources.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • A. Describe the layers of the solid Earth, including the lithosphere, the hot convecting mantle, and the dense metallic liquid and solid cores.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • B. Identify the patterns within the rock cycle and relate them to surface events (weathering and erosion) and sub-surface events (plate tectonics and mountain building).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • C. Identify current methods for measuring the age of Earth and its parts, including the law of superposition and radioactive dating.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • D. Explain and give examples of how physical evidence supports scientific theories that Earth has evolved over geologic time due to natural processes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • E. Explore the scientific theory of plate tectonics by describing how the movement of Earth's crustal plates causes both slow and rapid changes in Earth's surface, including volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and mountain building.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • F. Identify the impact that humans have had on Earth, such as deforestation, urbanization, desertification, erosion, air and water quality, changing the flow of water.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • G. Recognize that heat flow and movement of material within Earth causes earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and creates mountains and ocean basins.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7.SC.7.P.10 Physical Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A. Energy is involved in all physical processes and is a unifying concept in many areas of science.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  B. Energy exists in many forms and has the ability to do work or cause a change.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • A. Illustrate that the sun's energy arrives as radiation with a wide range of wavelengths, including infrared, visible, and ultraviolet, and that white light is made up of a spectrum of many different colors.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • B. Observe and explain that light can be reflected, refracted, and/or absorbed.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • C. Recognize that light waves, sound waves, and other waves move at different speeds in different materials.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7.SC.7.P.11 Physical Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A. Waves involve a transfer of energy without a transfer of matter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              B. Water and sound waves transfer energy through a material.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              C. Light waves can travel through a vacuum and through matter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              D. The Law of Conservation of Energy: Energy is conserved as it transfers from one object to another and from one form to another.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • A. Recognize that adding heat to or removing heat from a system may result in a temperature change and possibly a change of state.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • B. Investigate and describe the transformation of energy from one form to another.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • C. Cite evidence to explain that energy cannot be created nor destroyed, only changed from one form to another.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • D. Observe and describe that heat flows in predictable ways, moving from warmer objects to cooler ones until they reach the same temperature.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7.SC.7.L.15 Life Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A. The scientific theory of evolution is the organizing principle of life science.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              B. The scientific theory of evolution is supported by multiple forms of evidence.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              C. Natural Selection is a primary mechanism leading to change over time in organisms.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • A. Recognize that fossil evidence is consistent with the scientific theory of evolution that living things evolved from earlier species.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • B. Explore the scientific theory of evolution by recognizing and explaining ways in which genetic variation and environmental factors contribute to evolution by natural selection and diversity of organisms.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • C. Explore the scientific theory of evolution by relating how the inability of a species to adapt within a changing environment may contribute to the extinction of that species.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7.SC.7.L.16 Life Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A. Reproduction is characteristic of living things and is essential for the survival of species.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          B. Genetic information is passed from generation to generation by DNA; DNA controls the traits of an organism.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          C. Changes in the DNA of an organism can cause changes in traits, and manipulation of DNA in organisms has led to genetically modified organisms.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • B. Determine the probabilities for genotype and phenotype combinations using Punnett Squares and pedigrees.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • C. Compare and contrast the general processes of sexual reproduction requiring meiosis and asexual reproduction requiring mitosis.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • D. Recognize and explore the impact of biotechnology (cloning, genetic engineering, artificial selection) on the individual, society and the environment.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7.SC.7.L.17 Life Science

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          B. Both human activities and natural events can have major impacts on the environment.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          C. Energy flows from the sun through producers to consumers.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • A. Explain and illustrate the roles of and relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in the process of energy transfer in a food web.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • B. Compare and contrast the relationships among organisms such as mutualism, predation, parasitism, competition, and commensalism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • C. Describe and investigate various limiting factors in the local ecosystem and their impact on native populations, including food, shelter, water, space, disease, parasitism, predation, and nesting sites.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      8.SC.8.N.1 Nature of Science

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      B: The processes of science frequently do not correspond to the traditional portrayal of "the scientific method."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      C: Scientific argumentation is a necessary part of scientific inquiry and plays an important role in the generation and validation of scientific knowledge.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      D: Scientific knowledge is based on observation and inference; it is important to recognize that these are very different things. Not only does science require creativity in its methods and processes, but also in its questions and explanations.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • A. Define a problem from the eighth grade curriculum using appropriate reference materials to support scientific understanding, plan and carry out scientific investigations of various types, such as systematic observations or experiments, identify variables, collect and organize data, interpret data in charts, tables, and graphics, analyze information, make predictions, and defend conclusions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • B. Design and conduct a study using repeated trials and replication.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • C. Use phrases such as "results support" or "fail to support" in science, understanding that science does not offer conclusive 'proof' of a knowledge claim.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • D. Explain how hypotheses are valuable if they lead to further investigations, even if they turn out not to be supported by the data.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • E. Analyze the methods used to develop a scientific explanation as seen in different fields of science.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • F. Understand that scientific investigations involve the collection of relevant empirical evidence, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses, predictions, explanations and models to make sense of the collected evidence.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8.SC.8.N.2 Nature of Science

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              B: Scientific knowledge is durable and robust, but open to change.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              C: Because science is based on empirical evidence it strives for objectivity, but as it is a human endeavor the processes, methods, and knowledge of science include subjectivity, as well as creativity and discovery.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • A. Distinguish between scientific and pseudoscientific ideas. Remarks/Examples: Science is testable, pseudo-science is not; science seeks falsifications, pseudo-science seeks confirmations (e.g. astrology is pseudoscience).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • B. Discuss what characterizes science and its methods. Remarks/Examples: Science is the systematic, organized inquiry that is derived from observations and experimentation that can be verified through testing to explain natural phenomena.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      8.SC.8.N.3 Nature of Science

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • A. Select models useful in relating the results of their own investigations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • B. Explain why theories may be modified but are rarely discarded.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8.SC.8.N.4 Nature of Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              As tomorrows citizens, students should be able to identify issues about which society could provide input, formulate scientifically investigable questions about those issues, construct investigations of their questions, collect and evaluate data from their investigations, and develop scientific recommendations based upon their findings.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • A. Explain that science is one of the processes that can be used to inform decision making at the community, state, national, and international levels.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • B. Explain how political, social, and economic concerns can affect science, and vice

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      8.SC.8.E.5 Earth and Space Science

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • B. Recognize that the universe contains many billions of galaxies and that each galaxy contains many billions of stars.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • C. Distinguish the hierarchical relationships between planets and other astronomical bodies relative to solar system, galaxy, and universe, including distance, size, and composition.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • D. Explore the Law of Universal Gravitation by explaining the role that gravity plays in the formation of planets, stars, and solar systems and in determining their motions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • E. Describe and classify specific physical properties of stars: apparent magnitude (brightness), temperature (color), size, and luminosity (absolute brightness).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • F. Create models of solar properties including: rotation, structure of the Sun, convection, sunspots, solar flares, and prominences.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • G. Compare various historical models of the Solar System, including geocentric and heliocentric.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • H. Compare and contrast the properties of objects in the Solar System including the Sun, planets, and moons to those of Earth, such as gravitational force, distance from the Sun, speed, movement, temperature, and atmospheric conditions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • I. Explain the impact of objects in space on each other including 2. the Moon on the Earth, including phases, tides, and eclipses, and the relative position of each body

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • J. Assess how technology is essential to science for such purposes as access to outer space and other remote locations, sample collection, measurement,

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • K. recognize the application of different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum to an understanding of planetary images and satellite photographs.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • L. Summarize the effects of space exploration on the economy

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      8.SC.8.P.8 Physical Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A. All objects and substances in the world are made of matter. Matter has two fundamental properties: matter takes up space and matter has mass which gives it inertia.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      B. Objects and substances can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Mass is the amount of matter (or "stuff") in an object. Weight, on the other hand, is the measure of force of attraction (gravitational force) between an object and Earth.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The concepts of mass and weight are complicated and potentially confusing to elementary students. Hence, the more familiar term of "weight" is recommended for use to stand for both mass and weight in grades K-5. By grades 6-8, students are expected to understand the distinction between mass and weight, and use them appropriately.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Clarification for grades K-2: The use of the more familiar term "weight" instead of the term "mass" is recommended for grades K-2.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Clarification for grades 3-5: In grade 3, introduce the term mass as compared to the term weight. In grade 4, investigate the concept of weight versus mass of objects. In grade 5, discuss why mass (not weight) is used to compare properties of solids, liquids and gases.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • A. Explore the scientific theory of atoms (also known as atomic theory) by using models to explain the motion of particles in solids, liquids, and gases.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • B. Differentiate between weight and mass recognizing that weight is the amount of gravitational pull on an object and is distinct from, though proportional to, mass.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • C. Explore and describe the densities of various materials through measurement of their masses and volumes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • D. Classify and compare substances on the basis of characteristic physical properties that can be demonstrated or measured for example, density, thermal or electrical conductivity, solubility, magnetic properties, melting and boiling points, and know that these properties are independent of the amount of the sample.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • E. Recognize that there are a finite number of elements and that their atoms combine in a multitude of ways to produce compounds that make up all of the living and nonliving things that we encounter.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • F. Recognize that elements are grouped in the periodic table according to similarities of their properties.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • G. Explore the scientific theory of atoms (also known as atomic theory) by recognizing that atoms are the smallest unit of an element and are composed of sub-atomic particles (electrons surrounding a nucleus containing protons and neutrons).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • H. Identify basic examples of and compare and classify the properties of compounds, including acids, bases, and salts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • I. Distinguish among mixtures (including solutions) and pure substances.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          8.SC.8.P.9 Physical Science

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          B. When matter is changed physically, generally no changes occur in the structure of the atoms or molecules composing the matter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          C. When matter changes chemically, a rearrangement of bonds between the atoms occurs. This results in new substances with new properties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Clarification for grades K-5: The target understanding for students in the elementary grades should focus on Big Ideas A and B.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Clarification for Grades 6-8: The target understanding for students in the middle grades should begin to transition the focus to: C. When matter changes chemically, a rearrangement of bonds between the atoms occurs. This results in new substances with new properties.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • A. Explore the Law of Conservation of Mass by demonstrating and concluding that mass is conserved when substances undergo physical and chemical changes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • B. Differentiate between physical changes and chemical changes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • C. Investigate and describe how temperature influences chemical changes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      8.SC.8.L.18 Life Science

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      B. Living organisms acquire the energy they need for life processes through various metabolic pathways (photosynthesis and cellular respiration).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      C. Matter and energy are recycled through cycles such as the carbon cycle.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • B. Describe and investigate how cellular respiration breaks down food to provide energy and releases carbon dioxide.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • C. Construct a scientific model of the carbon cycle to show how matter and energy are continuously transferred within and between organisms and their physical environment.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • D. Cite evidence that living systems follow the Laws of Conservation of Mass and Energy.

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