Meet the needs of every student

NGSSS Readings Tailored to Each Student’s Reading Level

RocketLit serves adaptive NGSSS-aligned science readings from the 3rd through 12th grade reading levels, tailored for each student, to help struggling readers and challenge advanced students.

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        NGSS
        3rd Grade
        4th Grade
        5th Grade
        Middle School
        Physical Science
        Life Science
        Earth Science
        Engineering & Technology
        Cross Cutting Concepts
        Florida
        3rd Grade
        4th Grade
        5th Grade

        6th Grade
        7th Grade
        8th Grade
        Texas
        3rd Grade
        4th Grade
        5th Grade

        6th Grade
        7th Grade
        8th Grade
        North Carolina
        6th Grade
        7th Grade
        8th Grade

        3.SC.3.N.1 Nature of Science

        A: Scientific inquiry is a multifaceted activity; The processes of science include the formulation of scientifically investigable questions, construction of investigations into those questions, the collection of appropriate data, the evaluation of the meaning of those data, and the communication of this evaluation.

        B: The processes of science frequently do not correspond to the traditional portrayal of "the scientific method."

        C: Scientific argumentation is a necessary part of scientific inquiry and plays an important role in the generation and validation of scientific knowledge.

        D: Scientific knowledge is based on observation and inference; it is important to recognize that these are very different things. Not only does science require creativity in its methods and processes, but also in its questions and explanations.


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        • A. Raise questions about the natural world, investigate them individually and in teams through free exploration and systematic investigations, and generate appropriate explanations based on those explorations.

          Aligned Articles 1

          Background Articles 0

            • B. Compare the observations made by different groups using the same tools and seek reasons to explain the differences across groups.

              Aligned Articles 2

              Background Articles 0

                • C. Keep records as appropriate, such as pictorial, written, or simple charts and graphs, of investigations conducted.

                  Aligned Articles 0

                  Background Articles 1

                    • D. Recognize the importance of communication among scientists.

                      Aligned Articles 3

                      Background Articles 0

                        • E. Recognize that scientists question, discuss, and check each other's evidence and explanations.

                          Aligned Articles 2

                          Background Articles 0

                            • F. Infer based on observation.

                              Aligned Articles 2

                              Background Articles 0

                                • G. Explain that empirical evidence is information, such as observations or measurements, that is used to help validate explanations of natural phenomena.

                                  Aligned Articles 1

                                  Background Articles 1

                                    3.SC.3.N.3 Nature of Science

                                    The terms that describe examples of scientific knowledge, for example; "theory", "law", "hypothesis", and "model" have very specific meanings and functions within science.


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                                    • A. Recognize that words in science can have different or more specific meanings than their use in everyday language for example, energy, cell, heat/cold, and evidence.

                                      Aligned Articles 0

                                      Background Articles 1

                                        • B. Recognize that scientists use models to help understand and explain how things work.

                                          Aligned Articles 1

                                          Background Articles 1

                                            • C. Recognize that all models are approximations of natural phenomena as such, they do not perfectly account for all observations.

                                              Aligned Articles 1

                                              Background Articles 1

                                                3.SC.3.E.5 Earth and Space Science

                                                Humans continue to explore Earth's place in space. Gravity and energy influence the formation of galaxies, including our own Milky Way Galaxy, stars, the Solar System, and Earth. Humankind's need to explore continues to lead to the development of knowledge and understanding of our Solar System.


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                                                • A. Explain that stars can be different some are smaller, some are larger, and some appear brighter than others all except the Sun are so far away that they look like points of light.

                                                  Aligned Articles 3

                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                    • B. Identify the Sun as a star that emits energy some of it in the form of light.

                                                      Aligned Articles 3

                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                        • C. Recognize that the Sun appears large and bright because it is the closest star to Earth.

                                                          Aligned Articles 2

                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                            • D. Explore the Law of Gravity by demonstrating that gravity is a force that can be overcome.

                                                              Aligned Articles 1

                                                              Background Articles 0

                                                                • E. Investigate that the number of stars that can be seen through telescopes is dramatically greater than those seen by the unaided eye.

                                                                  Aligned Articles 1

                                                                  Background Articles 0

                                                                    3.SC.3.E.6 Earth and Space Science

                                                                    Humans continue to explore the composition and structure of the surface of Earth. External sources of energy have continuously altered the features of Earth by means of both constructive and destructive forces. All life, including human civilization, is dependent on Earth’s water and natural resources.


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                                                                    • A. Demonstrate that radiant energy from the Sun can heat objects and when the Sun is not present, heat may be lost.

                                                                      Aligned Articles 1

                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                        3.SC.3.P.8 Physical Science

                                                                        A. All objects and substances in the world are made of matter. Matter has two fundamental properties: matter takes up space and matter has mass.

                                                                        B. Objects and substances can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Mass is the amount of matter (or "stuff") in an object. Weight, on the other hand, is the measure of force of attraction (gravitational force) between an object and Earth.

                                                                        The concepts of mass and weight are complicated and potentially confusing to elementary students. Hence, the more familiar term of "weight" is recommended for use to stand for both mass and weight in grades K-5. By grades 6-8, students are expected to understand the distinction between mass and weight, and use them appropriately.

                                                                        Clarification for grades K-2: The use of the more familiar term "weight" instead of the term "mass" is recommended for grades K-2.

                                                                        Clarification for grades 3-5: In grade 3, introduce the term mass as compared to the term weight. In grade 4, investigate the concept of weight versus mass of objects. In grade 5, discuss why mass (not weight) is used to compare properties of solids, liquids and gases.


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                                                                        • A. Measure and compare temperatures of various samples of solids and liquids.

                                                                          Aligned Articles 1

                                                                          Background Articles 2

                                                                            • B. Measure and compare the mass and volume of solids and liquids.

                                                                              Aligned Articles 3

                                                                              Background Articles 0

                                                                                • C. Compare materials and objects according to properties such as size, shape, color, texture, and hardness.

                                                                                  Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                  Background Articles 0

                                                                                    3.SC.3.P.9 Physical Science

                                                                                    A. Matter can undergo a variety of changes.

                                                                                    B. Matter can be changed physically or chemically.

                                                                                    Clarification for grades K-5: The target understanding for students in the elementary grades should focus on Big Ideas A and B.


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                                                                                    • A. Describe the changes water undergoes when it changes state through heating and cooling by using familiar scientific terms such as melting, freezing, boiling, evaporation, and condensation.

                                                                                      Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                                        3.SC.3.P.10 Physical Science

                                                                                        A. Energy is involved in all physical processes and is a unifying concept in many areas of science.

                                                                                        B. Energy exists in many forms and has the ability to do work or cause a change.


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                                                                                        • A. Identify some basic forms of energy such as light, heat, sound, electrical, and mechanical.

                                                                                          Aligned Articles 11

                                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                                            • B. Recognize that energy has the ability to cause motion or create change.

                                                                                              Aligned Articles 4

                                                                                              Background Articles 2

                                                                                                • C. Demonstrate that light travels in a straight line until it strikes an object or travels from one medium to another.

                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                  Background Articles 2

                                                                                                    • D. Demonstrate that light can be reflected, refracted, and absorbed.

                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                                                        3.SC.3.P.11 Physical Science

                                                                                                        A. Waves involve a transfer of energy without a transfer of matter.

                                                                                                        B. Water and sound waves transfer energy through a material.

                                                                                                        C. Light waves can travel through a vacuum and through matter.


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                                                                                                        • A. Investigate, observe, and explain that things that give off light often also give off heat.

                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                                                            • B. Investigate, observe, and explain that heat is produced when one object rubs against another, such as rubbing one's hands together.

                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                              Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                3.SC.3.L.14 Life Science

                                                                                                                A. All plants and animals, including humans, are alike in some ways and different in others.

                                                                                                                B. All plants and animals, including humans, have internal parts and external structures that function to keep them alive and help them grow and reproduce.

                                                                                                                C. Humans can better understand the natural world through careful observation.


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                                                                                                                • A. Describe structures in plants and their roles in food production, support, water and nutrient transport, and reproduction.

                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 4

                                                                                                                  Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                    • B. Investigate and describe how plants respond to stimuli (heat, light, gravity), such as the way plant stems grow toward light and their roots grow downward in response to gravity.

                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                        3.SC.3.L.15 Life Science

                                                                                                                        A. Earth is home to a great diversity of living things, but changes in the environment can affect their survival.

                                                                                                                        B. Individuals of the same kind often differ in their characteristics and sometimes the differences give individuals an advantage in surviving and reproducing.


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                                                                                                                        • A. Classify animals into major groups (mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, arthropods, vertebrates and invertebrates, those having live births and those which lay eggs) according to their physical characteristics and behaviors.

                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                          Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                            • B. Classify flowering and nonflowering plants into major groups such as those that produce seeds, or those like ferns and mosses that produce spores, according to their physical characteristics.

                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                3.SC.3.L.17 Life Science

                                                                                                                                A. Plants and animals, including humans, interact with and depend upon each other and their environment to satisfy their basic needs.

                                                                                                                                B. Both human activities and natural events can have major impacts on the environment.

                                                                                                                                C. Energy flows from the sun through producers to consumers.


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                                                                                                                                • A. Describe how animals and plants respond to changing seasons.

                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                    • B. Recognize that plants use energy from the Sun, air, and water to make their own food.

                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                        4.SC.4.N.1 Nature of Science

                                                                                                                                        A: Scientific inquiry is a multifaceted activity; The processes of science include the formulation of scientifically investigable questions, construction of investigations into those questions, the collection of appropriate data, the evaluation of the meaning of those data, and the communication of this evaluation.

                                                                                                                                        B: The processes of science frequently do not correspond to the traditional portrayal of "the scientific method."

                                                                                                                                        C: Scientific argumentation is a necessary part of scientific inquiry and plays an important role in the generation and validation of scientific knowledge.

                                                                                                                                        D: Scientific knowledge is based on observation and inference; it is important to recognize that these are very different things. Not only does science require creativity in its methods and processes, but also in its questions and explanations.


                                                                                                                                        Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                        • A. Raise questions about the natural world, use appropriate reference materials that support understanding to obtain information (identifying the source), conduct both individual and team investigations through free exploration and systematic investigations, and generate appropriate explanations based on those explorations.

                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                            • B. Compare the observations made by different groups using multiple tools and seek reasons to explain the differences across groups.

                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                • C. Explain that science does not always follow a rigidly defined method ("the scientific method") but that science does involve the use of observations and empirical evidence.

                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                    • D. Attempt reasonable answers to scientific questions and cite evidence in support.

                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                        • E. Compare the methods and results of investigations done by other classmates.

                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                            • F. Keep records that describe observations made, carefully distinguishing actual observations from ideas and inferences about the observations.

                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                • G. Recognize and explain that scientists base their explanations on evidence.

                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                    • H. Recognize that science involves creativity in designing experiments.

                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                        4.SC.4.N.2 Nature of Science

                                                                                                                                                                        A: Scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence, and is appropriate for understanding the natural world, but it provides only a limited understanding of the supernatural, aesthetic, or other ways of knowing, such as art, philosophy, or religion.

                                                                                                                                                                        B: Scientific knowledge is durable and robust, but open to change.

                                                                                                                                                                        C: Because science is based on empirical evidence it strives for objectivity, but as it is a human endeavor the processes, methods, and knowledge of science include subjectivity, as well as creativity and discovery.


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                                                                                                                                                                        • A. Explain that science focuses solely on the natural world.

                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                            4.SC.4.N.3 Nature of Science

                                                                                                                                                                            The terms that describe examples of scientific knowledge, for example; "theory", "law", "hypothesis", and "model" have very specific meanings and functions within science.


                                                                                                                                                                            Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                            • A. Explain that models can be three dimensional, two dimensional, an explanation in your mind, or a computer model.

                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                4.SC.4.E.5 Earth and Space Science

                                                                                                                                                                                Humans continue to explore Earth's place in space. Gravity and energy influence the formation of galaxies, including our own Milky Way Galaxy, stars, the Solar System, and Earth. Humankind's need to explore continues to lead to the development of knowledge and understanding of our Solar System.


                                                                                                                                                                                Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                • A. Observe that the patterns of stars in the sky stay the same although they appear to shift across the sky nightly, and different stars can be seen in different seasons.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                    • B. Describe the changes in the observable shape of the moon over the course of about a month.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                        • C. Recognize that Earth revolves around the Sun in a year and rotates on its axis in a 24-hour day.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                            • D. Relate that the rotation of Earth (day and night) and apparent movements of the Sun, Moon, and stars are connected.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                • E. Investigate and report the effects of space research and exploration on the economy and culture of Florida.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4.SC.4.E.6 Earth and Space Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Humans continue to explore the composition and structure of the surface of Earth. External sources of energy have continuously altered the features of Earth by means of both constructive and destructive forces. All life, including human civilization, is dependent on Earth’s water and natural resources.


                                                                                                                                                                                                    Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                    • A. Identify the three categories of rocks: igneous, (formed from molten rock) sedimentary (pieces of other rocks and fossilized organisms) and metamorphic (formed from heat and pressure).

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                        • B. Identify the physical properties of common earth-forming minerals, including hardness, color, luster, cleavage, and streak color, and recognize the role of minerals in the formation of rocks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                            • C. Recognize that humans need resources found on Earth and that these are either renewable or nonrenewable.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 4

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                • D. Describe the basic differences between physical weathering (breaking down of rock by wind, water, ice, temperature change, and plants) and erosion (movement of rock by gravity, wind, water, and ice).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 7

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • E. Investigate how technology and tools help to extend the ability of humans to observe very small things and very large things.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • F. Identify resources available in Florida (water, phosphate, oil, limestone, silicon, wind, and solar energy).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4.SC.4.P.8 Physical Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A. All objects and substances in the world are made of matter. Matter has two fundamental properties: matter takes up space and matter has mass.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            B. Objects and substances can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Mass is the amount of matter (or "stuff") in an object. Weight, on the other hand, is the measure of force of attraction (gravitational force) between an object and Earth.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The concepts of mass and weight are complicated and potentially confusing to elementary students. Hence, the more familiar term of "weight" is recommended for use to stand for both mass and weight in grades K-5. By grades 6-8, students are expected to understand the distinction between mass and weight, and use them appropriately.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification for grades K-2: The use of the more familiar term ‘weight’ instead of the term “mass” is recommended for grades K-2.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification for grades 3-5: In grade 3, introduce the term mass as compared to the term weight. In grade 4, investigate the concept of weight versus mass of objects. In grade 5, discuss why mass (not weight) is used to compare properties of solids, liquids and gases.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • A. Measure and compare objects and materials based on their physical properties including: mass, shape, volume, color, hardness, texture, odor, taste, attraction to magnets.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • B. Identify properties and common uses of water in each of its states.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • C. Explore the Law of Conservation of Mass by demonstrating that the mass of a whole object is always the same as the sum of the masses of its parts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • D. Investigate and describe that magnets can attract magnetic materials and attract and repel other magnets.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4.SC.4.P.9 Physical Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A. Matter can undergo a variety of changes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            B. Matter can be changed physically or chemically.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification for grades K-5: The target understanding for students in the elementary grades should focus on Big Ideas A and B.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • A. Identify some familiar changes in materials that result in other materials with different characteristics, such as decaying animal or plant matter, burning, rusting, and cooking.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • B. Identify properties and common uses of water in each of its states.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • C. Explore the Law of Conservation of Mass by demonstrating that the mass of a whole object is always the same as the sum of the masses of its parts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4.SC.4.P.10 Physical Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A. Energy is involved in all physical processes and is a unifying concept in many areas of science.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        B. Energy exists in many forms and has the ability to do work or cause a change.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • A. Observe and describe some basic forms of energy, including light, heat, sound, electrical, and the energy of motion.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 11

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • B. Investigate and describe that energy has the ability to cause motion or create change.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • C. Investigate and explain that sound is produced by vibrating objects and that pitch depends on how fast or slow the object vibrates.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • D. Describe how moving water and air are sources of energy and can be used to move things.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4.SC.4.P.11 Physical Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A. Waves involve a transfer of energy without a transfer of matter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        B. Water and sound waves transfer energy through a material.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        C. Light waves can travel through a vacuum and through matter.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • A. Recognize that heat flows from a hot object to a cold object and that heat flow may cause materials to change temperature.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • B. Identify common materials that conduct heat well or poorly.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4.SC.4.P.12 Physical Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A. Motion is a key characteristic of all matter that can be observed, described, and measured.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                B. The motion of objects can be changed by forces.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • A. Recognize that an object in motion always changes its position and may change its direction.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • B. Investigate and describe that the speed of an object is determined by the distance it travels in a unit of time and that objects can move at different speeds.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4.SC.4.L.16 Life Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A. Offspring of plants and animals are similar to, but not exactly like, their parents or each other.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        B. Life cycles vary among organisms, but reproduction is a major stage in the life cycle of all organisms.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • A. Identify processes of sexual reproduction in flowering plants, including pollination, fertilization (seed production), seed dispersal, and germination.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • B. Explain that although characteristics of plants and animals are inherited, some characteristics can be affected by the environment.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • C. Recognize that animal behaviors may be shaped by heredity and learning.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • D. Compare and contrast the major stages in the life cycles of Florida plants and animals, such as those that undergo incomplete and complete metamorphosis, and flowering and nonflowering seed-bearing plants.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4.SC.4.L.17 Life Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A. Plants and animals, including humans, interact with and depend upon each other and their environment to satisfy their basic needs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        B. Both human activities and natural events can have major impacts on the environment.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        C. Energy flows from the sun through producers to consumers.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • A. Compare the seasonal changes in Florida plants and animals to those in other regions of the country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • B. Explain that animals, including humans, cannot make their own food and that when animals eat plants or other animals, the energy stored in the food source is passed to them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • C. Trace the flow of energy from the Sun as it is transferred along the food chain through the producers to the consumers.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 5

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • D. Recognize ways plants and animals, including humans, can impact the environment.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.SC.5.N.1 Nature of Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A: Scientific inquiry is a multifaceted activity; The processes of science include the formulation of scientifically investigable questions, construction of investigations into those questions, the collection of appropriate data, the evaluation of the meaning of those data, and the communication of this evaluation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        B: The processes of science frequently do not correspond to the traditional portrayal of "the scientific method."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        C: Scientific argumentation is a necessary part of scientific inquiry and plays an important role in the generation and validation of scientific knowledge.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        D: Scientific knowledge is based on observation and inference; it is important to recognize that these are very different things. Not only does science require creativity in its methods and processes, but also in its questions and explanations.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • A. Define a problem, use appropriate reference materials to support scientific understanding, plan and carry out scientific investigations of various types such as: systematic observations, experiments requiring the identification of variables, collecting and organizing data, interpreting data in charts, tables, and graphics, analyze information, make predictions, and defend conclusions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • B. Explain the difference between an experiment and other types of scientific investigation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • C. Recognize and explain the need for repeated experimental trials.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • D. Identify a control group and explain its importance in an experiment.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • E. Recognize and explain that authentic scientific investigation frequently does not parallel the steps of "the scientific method."

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • F. Recognize and explain the difference between personal opinion/interpretation and verified observation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                5.SC.5.N.2 Nature of Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A: Scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence, and is appropriate for understanding the natural world, but it provides only a limited understanding of the supernatural, aesthetic, or other ways of knowing, such as art, philosophy, or religion.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                B: Scientific knowledge is durable and robust, but open to change.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                C: Because science is based on empirical evidence it strives for objectivity, but as it is a human endeavor the processes, methods, and knowledge of science include subjectivity, as well as creativity and discovery.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • A. Recognize and explain that science is grounded in empirical observations that are testable explanation must always be linked with evidence.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 2

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • B. Recognize and explain that when scientific investigations are carried out, the evidence produced by those investigations should be replicable by others.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.SC.5.E.5 Earth and Space Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Humans continue to explore Earth's place in space. Gravity and energy influence the formation of galaxies, including our own Milky Way Galaxy, stars, the Solar System, and Earth. Humankind's need to explore continues to lead to the development of knowledge and understanding of our Solar System.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • A. Recognize that a galaxy consists of gas, dust, and many stars, including any objects orbiting the stars. Identify our home galaxy as the Milky Way.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • B. Recognize the major common characteristics of all planets and compare/contrast the properties of inner and outer planets.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • C. Distinguish among the following objects of the Solar System Sun, planets, moons, asteroids, comets and identify Earth's position in it.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5.SC.5.E.7 Earth and Space Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Humans continue to explore the interactions among water, air, and land. Air and water are in constant motion that results in changing conditions that can be observed over time.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • A. Create a model to explain the parts of the water cycle. Water can be a gas, a liquid, or a solid and can go back and forth from one state to another.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • B. Recognize that the ocean is an integral part of the water cycle and is connected to all of Earth's water reservoirs via evaporation and precipitation processes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • C. Recognize how air temperature, barometric pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction, and precipitation determine the weather in a particular place and time.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 3

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • D. Distinguish among the various forms of precipitation (rain, snow, sleet, and hail), making connections to the weather in a particular place and time.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • E. Recognize that some of the weather-related differences, such as temperature and humidity, are found among different environments, such as swamps, deserts, and mountains.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • F. Describe characteristics (temperature and precipitation) of different climate zones as they relate to latitude, elevation, and proximity to bodies of water.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • G. Design a family preparedness plan for natural disasters and identify the reasons for having such a plan.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                5.SC.5.P.8 Physical Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A. All objects and substances in the world are made of matter. Matter has two fundamental properties: matter takes up space and matter has mass.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                B. Objects and substances can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Mass is the amount of matter (or "stuff") in an object. Weight, on the other hand, is the measure of force of attraction (gravitational force) between an object and Earth.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The concepts of mass and weight are complicated and potentially confusing to elementary students. Hence, the more familiar term of "weight" is recommended for use to stand for both mass and weight in grades K-5. By grades 6-8, students are expected to understand the distinction between mass and weight, and use them appropriately.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification for grades K-2: The use of the more familiar term "weight" instead of the term "mass" is recommended for grades K-2.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification for grades 3-5: In grade 3, introduce the term mass as compared to the term weight. In grade 4, investigate the concept of weight versus mass of objects. In grade 5, discuss why mass (not weight) is used to compare properties of solids, liquids and gases.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • A. Compare and contrast the basic properties of solids, liquids, and gases, such as mass, volume, color, texture, and temperature.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • B. Investigate and identify materials that will dissolve in water and those that will not and identify the conditions that will speed up or slow down the dissolving process.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • C. Demonstrate and explain that mixtures of solids can be separated based on observable properties of their parts such as particle size, shape, color, and magnetic attraction.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • D. Explore the scientific theory of atoms (also called atomic theory) by recognizing that all matter is composed of parts that are too small to be seen without magnification.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                5.SC.5.P.9 Physical Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A. Matter can undergo a variety of changes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                B. Matter can be changed physically or chemically.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification for grades K-5: The target understanding for students in the elementary grades should focus on Big Ideas A and B.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • A. Investigate and describe that many physical and chemical changes are affected by temperature.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5.SC.5.P.10 Physical Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A. Energy is involved in all physical processes and is a unifying concept in many areas of science.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    B. Energy exists in many forms and has the ability to do work or cause a change.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • A. Investigate and describe some basic forms of energy, including light, heat, sound, electrical, chemical, and mechanical.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • B. Investigate and explain that energy has the ability to cause motion or create change.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • C. Investigate and explain that an electrically-charged object can attract an uncharged object and can either attract or repel another charged object without any contact between the objects.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • D. Investigate and explain that electrical energy can be transformed into heat, light, and sound energy, as well as the energy of motion.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5.SC.5.P.11 Physical Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A. Waves involve a transfer of energy without a transfer of matter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    B. Water and sound waves transfer energy through a material.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    C. Light waves can travel through a vacuum and through matter.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • A. Investigate and illustrate the fact that the flow of electricity requires a closed circuit (a complete loop).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • B. Identify and classify materials that conduct electricity and materials that do not.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5.SC.5.P.13 Physical Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A. It takes energy to change the motion of objects.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            B. Energy change is understood in terms of forces--pushes or pulls.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            C. Some forces act through physical contact, while others act at a distance.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification for grades K-5: The target understanding for students in the elementary grades should focus on Big Ideas A, B, and C.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • A. Identify familiar forces that cause objects to move, such as pushes or pulls, including gravity acting on falling objects.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • B. Investigate and describe that the greater the force applied to it, the greater the change in motion of a given object.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • C. Investigate and describe that the more mass an object has, the less effect a given force will have on the object's motion.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • D. Investigate and explain that when a force is applied to an object but it does not move, it is because another opposing force is being applied by something in the environment so that the forces are balanced.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5.SC.5.L.14 Life Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A. All plants and animals, including humans, are alike in some ways and different in others.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            B. All plants and animals, including humans, have internal parts and external structures that function to keep them alive and help them grow and reproduce.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            C. Humans can better understand the natural world through careful observation.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • A. Identify the organs in the human body and describe their functions, including the skin, brain, heart, lungs, stomach, liver, intestines, pancreas, muscles and skeleton, reproductive organs, kidneys, bladder, and sensory organs.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • B. Compare and contrast the function of organs and other physical structures of plants and animals, including humans, for example: some animals have skeletons for support some with internal skeletons others with exoskeletons while some plants have stems for support.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5.SC.5.L.15 Life Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A. Earth is home to a great diversity of living things, but changes in the environment can affect their survival.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    B. Individuals of the same kind often differ in their characteristics and sometimes the differences give individuals an advantage in surviving and reproducing.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • A. Describe how, when the environment changes, differences between individuals allow some plants and animals to survive and reproduce while others die or move to new locations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.SC.5.L.17 Life Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A. Plants and animals, including humans, interact with and depend upon each other and their environment to satisfy their basic needs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        B. Both human activities and natural events can have major impacts on the environment.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        C. Energy flows from the sun through producers to consumers.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • A. Compare and contrast adaptations displayed by animals and plants that enable them to survive in different environments such as life cycles variations, animal behaviors and physical characteristics.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6.SC.6.N.1 Nature of Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A: Scientific inquiry is a multifaceted activity; The processes of science include the formulation of scientifically investigable questions, construction of investigations into those questions, the collection of appropriate data, the evaluation of the meaning of those data, and the communication of this evaluation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            B: The processes of science frequently do not correspond to the traditional portrayal of "the scientific method."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            C: Scientific argumentation is a necessary part of scientific inquiry and plays an important role in the generation and validation of scientific knowledge.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            D: Scientific knowledge is based on observation and inference; it is important to recognize that these are very different things. Not only does science require creativity in its methods and processes, but also in its questions and explanations.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • A. Define a problem from the sixth grade curriculum, use appropriate reference materials to support scientific understanding, plan and carry out scientific investigation of various types, such as systematic observations or experiments, identify variables, collect and organize data, interpret data in charts, tables, and graphics, analyze information, make predictions, and defend conclusions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • B. Explain why scientific investigations should be replicable.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 1

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • C. Explain the difference between an experiment and other types of scientific investigation, and explain the relative benefits and limitations of each.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 1

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • D. Discuss, compare, and negotiate methods used, results obtained, and explanations among groups of students conducting the same investigation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • E. Recognize that science involves creativity, not just in designing experiments, but also in creating explanations that fit evidence.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6.SC.6.N.2 Nature of Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A: Scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence, and is appropriate for understanding the natural world, but it provides only a limited understanding of the supernatural, aesthetic, or other ways of knowing, such as art, philosophy, or religion.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                B: Scientific knowledge is durable and robust, but open to change.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                C: Because science is based on empirical evidence it strives for objectivity, but as it is a human endeavor the processes, methods, and knowledge of science include subjectivity, as well as creativity and discovery.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • A. Distinguish science from other activities involving thought.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • B. Explain that scientific knowledge is durable because it is open to change as new evidence or interpretations are encountered.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • C. Recognize that scientists who make contributions to scientific knowledge come from all kinds of backgrounds and possess varied talents, interests, and goals.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6.SC.6.N.3 Nature of Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The terms that describe examples of scientific knowledge, for example; "theory," "law," "hypothesis," and "model" have very specific meanings and functions within science.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • A. Recognize and explain that a scientific theory is a well-supported and widely accepted explanation of nature and is not simply a claim posed by an individual. Thus, the use of the term theory in science is very different than how it is used in everyday life.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • B. Recognize and explain that a scientific law is a description of a specific relationship under given conditions in the natural world. Thus, scientific laws are different from societal laws.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • C. Give several examples of scientific laws.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • D. Identify the role of models in the context of the sixth grade science benchmarks.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6.SC.6.E.6 Earth and Space Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Over geologic time, internal and external sources of energy have continuously altered the features of Earth by means of both constructive and destructive forces. All life, including human civilization, is dependent on Earth's internal and external energy and material resources.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • A. Describe and give examples of ways in which Earth's surface is built up and torn down by physical and chemical weathering, erosion, and deposition.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • B. Recognize that there are a variety of different landforms on Earth's surface such as coastlines, dunes, rivers, mountains, glaciers, deltas, and lakes and relate these landforms as they apply to Florida.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6.SC.6.E.7 Earth and Space Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The scientific theory of the evolution of Earth states that changes in our planet are driven by the flow of energy and the cycling of matter through dynamic interactions among the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, and biosphere, and the resources used to sustain human civilization on Earth.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • A. Differentiate among radiation, conduction, and convection, the three mechanisms by which heat is transferred through Earth's system.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • B. Investigate and apply how the cycling of water between the atmosphere and hydrosphere has an effect on weather patterns and climate.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • C. Describe how global patterns such as the jet stream and ocean currents influence local weather in measurable terms such as temperature, air pressure, wind direction and speed, and humidity and precipitation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • D. show interactions among the geosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • E. Explain how energy provided by the sun influences global patterns of atmospheric movement and the temperature differences between air, water, and land.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • F. Differentiate between weather and climate.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • G. Investigate how natural disasters have affected human life in Florida.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • H. Describe ways human beings protect themselves from hazardous weather and sun

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • I. Describe how the composition and structure of the atmosphere protects life and insulates the planet.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6.SC.6.P.11 Physical Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A. Waves involve a transfer of energy without a transfer of matter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        B. Water and sound waves transfer energy through a material.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        C. Light waves can travel through a vacuum and through matter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        D. The Law of Conservation of Energy: Energy is conserved as it transfers from one object to another and from one form to another.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • A. Explore the Law of Conservation of Energy by differentiating between potential and kinetic energy. Identify situations where kinetic energy is transformed into potential energy and vice versa.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6.SC.6.P.12 Physical Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A. Motion is a key characteristic of all matter that can be observed, described, and measured.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            B. The motion of objects can be changed by forces.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • A. Measure and graph distance versus time for an object moving at a constant speed. Interpret this relationship.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6.SC.6.P.13 Physical Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A. It takes energy to change the motion of objects.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                B. Energy change is understood in terms of forces--pushes or pulls.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                C. Some forces act through physical contact, while others act at a distance.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification for grades K-5: The target understanding for students in the elementary grades should focus on Big Ideas A, B, and C.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification for grades 6-8: The target understanding for students in grades 6-8 should begin to transition the focus to a more specific definition of forces and changes in motion. Net forces create a change in motion. A change in momentum occurs when a net force is applied to an object over a time interval.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Grades 9-12, Standard 12: Motion - A. Motion can be measured and described qualitatively and quantitatively. Net forces create a change in motion. B. Momentum is conserved under well-defined conditions. A change in momentum occurs when a net force is applied to an object over a time interval.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • A. Investigate and describe types of forces including contact forces and forces acting at a distance, such as electrical, magnetic, and gravitational.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • B. Explore the Law of Gravity by recognizing that every object exerts gravitational force on every other object and that the force depends on how much mass the objects have and how far apart they are.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • C. Investigate and describe that an unbalanced force acting on an object changes its speed, or direction of motion, or both.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6.SC.6.L.14 Life Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A. All living things share certain characteristics.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            B. The scientific theory of cells, also called cell theory, is a fundamental organizing principle of life on Earth.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            C. Life can be organized in a functional and structural hierarchy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            D. Life is maintained by various physiological functions essential for growth, reproduction, and homeostasis.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • A. Describe and identify patterns in the hierarchical organization of organisms from atoms to molecules and cells to tissues to organs to organ systems to organisms.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • B. Investigate and explain the components of the scientific theory of cells (cell theory): all organisms are composed of cells (single-celled or multi-cellular), all cells come from pre-existing cells, and cells are the basic unit of life.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • C. Recognize and explore how cells of all organisms undergo similar processes to maintain homeostasis, including extracting energy from food, getting rid of waste, and reproducing.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • D. Compare and contrast the structure and function of major organelles of plant and animal cells, including cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, mitochondria, and vacuoles.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • E. Identify and investigate the general functions of the major systems of the human body (digestive, respiratory, circulatory, reproductive, excretory, immune, nervous, and musculoskeletal) and describe ways these systems interact with each other to maintain homeostasis.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • F. Compare and contrast types of infectious agents that may infect the human body, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6.SC.6.L.15 Life Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A. The scientific theory of evolution is the organizing principle of life science.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    B. The scientific theory of evolution is supported by multiple forms of evidence.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    C. Natural Selection is a primary mechanism leading to change over time in organisms.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • A. Analyze and describe how and why organisms are classified according to shared characteristics with emphasis on the Linnaean system combined with the concept of Domains.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7.SC.7.N.1 Nature of Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A: Scientific inquiry is a multifaceted activity; The processes of science include the formulation of scientifically investigable questions, construction of investigations into those questions, the collection of appropriate data, the evaluation of the meaning of those data, and the communication of this evaluation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        B: The processes of science frequently do not correspond to the traditional portrayal of "the scientific method."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        C: Scientific argumentation is a necessary part of scientific inquiry and plays an important role in the generation and validation of scientific knowledge.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        D: Scientific knowledge is based on observation and inference; it is important to recognize that these are very different things. Not only does science require creativity in its methods and processes, but also in its questions and explanations.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • A. Define a problem from the seventh grade curriculum, use appropriate reference materials to support scientific understanding, plan and carry out scientific investigation of various types, such as systematic observations or experiments, identify variables, collect and organize data, interpret data in charts, tables, and graphics, analyze information, make predictions, and defend conclusions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • B. Differentiate replication (by others) from repetition (multiple trials).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • C. Distinguish between an experiment (which must involve the identification and control of variables) and other forms of scientific investigation and explain that not all scientific knowledge is derived from experimentation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • D. Identify test variables (independent variables) and outcome variables (dependent variables) in an experiment.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • E. Explain that empirical evidence is the cumulative body of observations of a natural phenomenon on which scientific explanations are based.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • F. Explain that scientific knowledge is the result of a great deal of debate and confirmation within the science community.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7.SC.7.N.2 Nature of Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A: Scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence, and is appropriate for understanding the natural world, but it provides only a limited understanding of the supernatural, aesthetic, or other ways of knowing, such as art, philosophy, or religion.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                B: Scientific knowledge is durable and robust, but open to change.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                C: Because science is based on empirical evidence it strives for objectivity, but as it is a human endeavor the processes, methods, and knowledge of science include subjectivity, as well as creativity and discovery.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • A. Identify an instance from the history of science in which scientific knowledge has changed when new evidence or new interpretations are encountered.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7.SC.7.N.3 Nature of Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The terms that describe examples of scientific knowledge, for example; "theory," "law," "hypothesis," and "model" have very specific meanings and functions within science.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • A. Recognize and explain the difference between theories and laws and give several examples of scientific theories and the evidence that supports them.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • B. Identify the benefits and limitations of the use of scientific models.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7.SC.7.E.6 Earth and Space Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Over geologic time, internal and external sources of energy have continuously altered the features of Earth by means of both constructive and destructive forces. All life, including human civilization, is dependent on Earth's internal and external energy and material resources.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • A. Describe the layers of the solid Earth, including the lithosphere, the hot convecting mantle, and the dense metallic liquid and solid cores.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • B. Identify the patterns within the rock cycle and relate them to surface events (weathering and erosion) and sub-surface events (plate tectonics and mountain building).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • C. Identify current methods for measuring the age of Earth and its parts, including the law of superposition and radioactive dating.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • D. Explain and give examples of how physical evidence supports scientific theories that Earth has evolved over geologic time due to natural processes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • E. Explore the scientific theory of plate tectonics by describing how the movement of Earth's crustal plates causes both slow and rapid changes in Earth's surface, including volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and mountain building.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • F. Identify the impact that humans have had on Earth, such as deforestation, urbanization, desertification, erosion, air and water quality, changing the flow of water.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • G. Recognize that heat flow and movement of material within Earth causes earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and creates mountains and ocean basins.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7.SC.7.P.10 Physical Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A. Energy is involved in all physical processes and is a unifying concept in many areas of science.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        B. Energy exists in many forms and has the ability to do work or cause a change.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • A. Illustrate that the sun's energy arrives as radiation with a wide range of wavelengths, including infrared, visible, and ultraviolet, and that white light is made up of a spectrum of many different colors.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • B. Observe and explain that light can be reflected, refracted, and/or absorbed.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • C. Recognize that light waves, sound waves, and other waves move at different speeds in different materials.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7.SC.7.P.11 Physical Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A. Waves involve a transfer of energy without a transfer of matter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    B. Water and sound waves transfer energy through a material.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    C. Light waves can travel through a vacuum and through matter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    D. The Law of Conservation of Energy: Energy is conserved as it transfers from one object to another and from one form to another.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • A. Recognize that adding heat to or removing heat from a system may result in a temperature change and possibly a change of state.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • B. Investigate and describe the transformation of energy from one form to another.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • C. Cite evidence to explain that energy cannot be created nor destroyed, only changed from one form to another.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • D. Observe and describe that heat flows in predictable ways, moving from warmer objects to cooler ones until they reach the same temperature.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 2

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A. The scientific theory of evolution is the organizing principle of life science.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    B. The scientific theory of evolution is supported by multiple forms of evidence.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    C. Natural Selection is a primary mechanism leading to change over time in organisms.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • A. Recognize that fossil evidence is consistent with the scientific theory of evolution that living things evolved from earlier species.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • B. Explore the scientific theory of evolution by recognizing and explaining ways in which genetic variation and environmental factors contribute to evolution by natural selection and diversity of organisms.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • C. Explore the scientific theory of evolution by relating how the inability of a species to adapt within a changing environment may contribute to the extinction of that species.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7.SC.7.L.16 Life Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A. Reproduction is characteristic of living things and is essential for the survival of species.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                B. Genetic information is passed from generation to generation by DNA; DNA controls the traits of an organism.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                C. Changes in the DNA of an organism can cause changes in traits, and manipulation of DNA in organisms has led to genetically modified organisms.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • A. Understand and explain that every organism requires a set of instructions that specifies its traits, that this hereditary information (DNA) contains genes located in the chromosomes of each cell, and that heredity is the passage of these instructions from one generation to another.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • B. Determine the probabilities for genotype and phenotype combinations using Punnett Squares and pedigrees.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • C. Compare and contrast the general processes of sexual reproduction requiring meiosis and asexual reproduction requiring mitosis.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • D. Recognize and explore the impact of biotechnology (cloning, genetic engineering, artificial selection) on the individual, society and the environment.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                B. Both human activities and natural events can have major impacts on the environment.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                C. Energy flows from the sun through producers to consumers.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • A. Explain and illustrate the roles of and relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in the process of energy transfer in a food web.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • B. Compare and contrast the relationships among organisms such as mutualism, predation, parasitism, competition, and commensalism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • C. Describe and investigate various limiting factors in the local ecosystem and their impact on native populations, including food, shelter, water, space, disease, parasitism, predation, and nesting sites.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A: Scientific inquiry is a multifaceted activity; The processes of science include the formulation of scientifically investigable questions, construction of investigations into those questions, the collection of appropriate data, the evaluation of the meaning of those data, and the communication of this evaluation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            B: The processes of science frequently do not correspond to the traditional portrayal of "the scientific method."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            C: Scientific argumentation is a necessary part of scientific inquiry and plays an important role in the generation and validation of scientific knowledge.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            D: Scientific knowledge is based on observation and inference; it is important to recognize that these are very different things. Not only does science require creativity in its methods and processes, but also in its questions and explanations.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • A. Define a problem from the eighth grade curriculum using appropriate reference materials to support scientific understanding, plan and carry out scientific investigations of various types, such as systematic observations or experiments, identify variables, collect and organize data, interpret data in charts, tables, and graphics, analyze information, make predictions, and defend conclusions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • B. Design and conduct a study using repeated trials and replication.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • D. Explain how hypotheses are valuable if they lead to further investigations, even if they turn out not to be supported by the data.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • E. Analyze the methods used to develop a scientific explanation as seen in different fields of science.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A: Scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence, and is appropriate for understanding the natural world, but it provides only a limited understanding of the supernatural, aesthetic, or other ways of knowing, such as art, philosophy, or religion.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    B: Scientific knowledge is durable and robust, but open to change.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    C: Because science is based on empirical evidence it strives for objectivity, but as it is a human endeavor the processes, methods, and knowledge of science include subjectivity, as well as creativity and discovery.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • A. Distinguish between scientific and pseudoscientific ideas. Remarks/Examples: Science is testable, pseudo-science is not; science seeks falsifications, pseudo-science seeks confirmations (e.g. astrology is pseudoscience).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • B. Discuss what characterizes science and its methods. Remarks/Examples: Science is the systematic, organized inquiry that is derived from observations and experimentation that can be verified through testing to explain natural phenomena.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The terms that describe examples of scientific knowledge, for example; "theory," "law," "hypothesis," and "model" have very specific meanings and functions within science.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • A. Select models useful in relating the results of their own investigations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • B. Explain why theories may be modified but are rarely discarded.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8.SC.8.N.4 Nature of Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    As tomorrows citizens, students should be able to identify issues about which society could provide input, formulate scientifically investigable questions about those issues, construct investigations of their questions, collect and evaluate data from their investigations, and develop scientific recommendations based upon their findings.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • A. Explain that science is one of the processes that can be used to inform decision making at the community, state, national, and international levels.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • B. Explain how political, social, and economic concerns can affect science, and vice

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The origin and eventual fate of the Universe still remains one of the greatest questions in science. Gravity and energy influence the formation of galaxies, including our own Milky Way Galaxy, stars, the planetary systems, and Earth. Humankind’s need to explore continues to lead to the development of knowledge and understanding of the nature of the Universe.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • A. Recognize that there are enormous distances between objects in space and apply our knowledge of light and space travel to understand this distance.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • B. Recognize that the universe contains many billions of galaxies and that each galaxy contains many billions of stars.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • C. Distinguish the hierarchical relationships between planets and other astronomical bodies relative to solar system, galaxy, and universe, including distance, size, and composition.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • D. Explore the Law of Universal Gravitation by explaining the role that gravity plays in the formation of planets, stars, and solar systems and in determining their motions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • E. Describe and classify specific physical properties of stars: apparent magnitude (brightness), temperature (color), size, and luminosity (absolute brightness).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • F. Create models of solar properties including: rotation, structure of the Sun, convection, sunspots, solar flares, and prominences.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • G. Compare various historical models of the Solar System, including geocentric and heliocentric.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • H. Compare and contrast the properties of objects in the Solar System including the Sun, planets, and moons to those of Earth, such as gravitational force, distance from the Sun, speed, movement, temperature, and atmospheric conditions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • I. Explain the impact of objects in space on each other including 2. the Moon on the Earth, including phases, tides, and eclipses, and the relative position of each body

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • J. Assess how technology is essential to science for such purposes as access to outer space and other remote locations, sample collection, measurement,

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • K. recognize the application of different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum to an understanding of planetary images and satellite photographs.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • L. Summarize the effects of space exploration on the economy

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A. All objects and substances in the world are made of matter. Matter has two fundamental properties: matter takes up space and matter has mass which gives it inertia.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            B. Objects and substances can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Mass is the amount of matter (or "stuff") in an object. Weight, on the other hand, is the measure of force of attraction (gravitational force) between an object and Earth.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The concepts of mass and weight are complicated and potentially confusing to elementary students. Hence, the more familiar term of "weight" is recommended for use to stand for both mass and weight in grades K-5. By grades 6-8, students are expected to understand the distinction between mass and weight, and use them appropriately.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification for grades K-2: The use of the more familiar term "weight" instead of the term "mass" is recommended for grades K-2.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clarification for grades 3-5: In grade 3, introduce the term mass as compared to the term weight. In grade 4, investigate the concept of weight versus mass of objects. In grade 5, discuss why mass (not weight) is used to compare properties of solids, liquids and gases.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • A. Explore the scientific theory of atoms (also known as atomic theory) by using models to explain the motion of particles in solids, liquids, and gases.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • B. Differentiate between weight and mass recognizing that weight is the amount of gravitational pull on an object and is distinct from, though proportional to, mass.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • C. Explore and describe the densities of various materials through measurement of their masses and volumes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • D. Classify and compare substances on the basis of characteristic physical properties that can be demonstrated or measured for example, density, thermal or electrical conductivity, solubility, magnetic properties, melting and boiling points, and know that these properties are independent of the amount of the sample.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • E. Recognize that there are a finite number of elements and that their atoms combine in a multitude of ways to produce compounds that make up all of the living and nonliving things that we encounter.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • F. Recognize that elements are grouped in the periodic table according to similarities of their properties.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • H. Identify basic examples of and compare and classify the properties of compounds, including acids, bases, and salts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • I. Distinguish among mixtures (including solutions) and pure substances.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8.SC.8.P.9 Physical Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A. Matter can undergo a variety of changes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                B. When matter is changed physically, generally no changes occur in the structure of the atoms or molecules composing the matter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                C. When matter changes chemically, a rearrangement of bonds between the atoms occurs. This results in new substances with new properties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification for grades K-5: The target understanding for students in the elementary grades should focus on Big Ideas A and B.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clarification for Grades 6-8: The target understanding for students in the middle grades should begin to transition the focus to: C. When matter changes chemically, a rearrangement of bonds between the atoms occurs. This results in new substances with new properties.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • A. Explore the Law of Conservation of Mass by demonstrating and concluding that mass is conserved when substances undergo physical and chemical changes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • B. Differentiate between physical changes and chemical changes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • C. Investigate and describe how temperature influences chemical changes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            8.SC.8.L.18 Life Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A. Living things all share basic needs for life.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            B. Living organisms acquire the energy they need for life processes through various metabolic pathways (photosynthesis and cellular respiration).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            C. Matter and energy are recycled through cycles such as the carbon cycle.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • A. Describe and investigate the process of photosynthesis, such as the roles of light, carbon dioxide, water and chlorophyll production of food release of oxygen.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • B. Describe and investigate how cellular respiration breaks down food to provide energy and releases carbon dioxide.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • C. Construct a scientific model of the carbon cycle to show how matter and energy are continuously transferred within and between organisms and their physical environment.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • D. Cite evidence that living systems follow the Laws of Conservation of Mass and Energy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 0

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The platform’s ease of use and intuitive design drew me in, but the differentiation piece is really the seller. I can look up a million articles on everything on my own, but the website already does it all for me.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Even my most gifted students have voiced their opinions on how challenging RocketLit is. Which, as a teacher, is something that I appreciate about the product. Many of my students are reading at the 11-12th grade level.

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