Meet the needs of every student

TEKS Readings Tailored to Each Student’s Reading Level

RocketLit serves adaptive TEKS-aligned science readings from the 3rd through 12th grade reading levels, tailored for each student, to help struggling readers and challenge advanced students.

  • Everything
  • Science
  • History

Loading Articles...

        NGSS
        3rd Grade
        4th Grade
        5th Grade
        Middle School
        Physical Science
        Life Science
        Earth Science
        Engineering & Technology
        Cross Cutting Concepts
        Florida
        3rd Grade
        4th Grade
        5th Grade

        6th Grade
        7th Grade
        8th Grade
        Texas
        3rd Grade
        4th Grade
        5th Grade

        6th Grade
        7th Grade
        8th Grade
        North Carolina
        6th Grade
        7th Grade
        8th Grade

        3.1-4 Scientific Investigation and Reasoning

        Introduction


        Loading Articles...

        • 3.1.A. Demonstrate safe practices as described in the Texas Safety Standards during classroom and outdoor investigations, including observing a schoolyard habitat

          Aligned Articles 1

          Background Articles 0

            • 3.1.B. Make informed choices in the use and conservation of natural resources by recycling or reusing materials such as paper, aluminum cans, and plastics.

              Aligned Articles 1

              Background Articles 0

                • 3.2.A. Plan and implement descriptive investigations, including asking and answering questions, making inferences, and selecting and using equipment or technology needed, to solve a specific problem in the natural world

                  Aligned Articles 0

                  Background Articles 1

                    • 3.2.B. Collect data by observing and measuring using the metric system and recognize differences between observed and measured data

                      Aligned Articles 0

                      Background Articles 0

                        • 3.2.C. Construct maps, graphic organizers, simple tables, charts, and bar graphs using tools and current technology to organize, examine, and evaluate measured data

                          Aligned Articles 1

                          Background Articles 0

                            • 3.2.D. Analyze and interpret patterns in data to construct reasonable explanations based on evidence from investigations

                              Aligned Articles 1

                              Background Articles 0

                                • 3.2.E. Demonstrate that repeated investigations may increase the reliability of results

                                  Aligned Articles 1

                                  Background Articles 0

                                    • 3.2.F. Communicate valid conclusions supported by data in writing, by drawing pictures, and through verbal discussion.

                                      Aligned Articles 1

                                      Background Articles 0

                                        • 3.3.A. In all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student

                                          Aligned Articles 1

                                          Background Articles 1

                                            • 3.3.B. Draw inferences and evaluate accuracy of product claims found in advertisements and labels such as for toys and food

                                              Aligned Articles 0

                                              Background Articles 0

                                                • 3.3.C. Represent the natural world using models such as volcanoes or Sun, Earth, and Moon system and identify their limitations, including size, properties, and materials

                                                  Aligned Articles 1

                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                    • 3.3.D. Connect grade-level appropriate science concepts with the history of science, science careers, and contributions of scientists.

                                                      Aligned Articles 2

                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                        • 3.4.A. Collect, record, and analyze information using tools, including microscopes, cameras, computers, hand lenses, metric rulers, Celsius thermometers, wind vanes, rain gauges, pan balances, graduated cylinders, beakers, spring scales, hot plates, meter sticks, compasses, magnets, collecting nets, notebooks, sound recorders, and Sun, Earth, and Moon system models; timing devices, including clocks and stopwatches; and materials to support observation of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums;

                                                          Aligned Articles 1

                                                          Background Articles 0

                                                            • 3.4.B. Use safety equipment as appropriate, including safety goggles and gloves.

                                                              Aligned Articles 1

                                                              Background Articles 0

                                                                3.5 Matter and Energy

                                                                The student knows that matter has measurable physical properties and those properties determine how matter is classified, changed, and used.


                                                                Loading Articles...

                                                                • 3.5.A. Measure, test, and record physical properties of matter, including temperature, mass, magnetism, and the ability to sink or float

                                                                  Aligned Articles 1

                                                                  Background Articles 2

                                                                    • 3.5.B. Describe and classify samples of matter as solids, liquids, and gases and demonstrate that solids have a definite shape and that liquids and gases take the shape of their container

                                                                      Aligned Articles 3

                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                        • 3.5.C. Predict, observe, and record changes in the state of matter caused by heating or cooling

                                                                          Aligned Articles 1

                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                            • 3.5.D. Explore and recognize that a mixture is created when two materials are combined such as gravel and sand and metal and plastic paper clips

                                                                              Aligned Articles 0

                                                                              Background Articles 0

                                                                                3.6 Force, Motion, and Energy

                                                                                The student knows that forces cause change and that energy exists in many forms.


                                                                                Loading Articles...

                                                                                • 3.6.A. Explore different forms of energy, including mechanical, light, sound, and heat/thermal in everyday life

                                                                                  Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                                                    • 3.6.B. Demonstrate and observe how position and motion can be changed by pushing and pulling objects to show work being done such as swings, balls, pulleys, and wagons;

                                                                                      Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                                        • 3.6.C. Observe forces such as magnetism and gravity acting on objects.

                                                                                          Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                          Background Articles 0

                                                                                            3.7 Earth and Space

                                                                                            The student knows that Earth consists of natural resources and its surface is constantly changing.


                                                                                            Loading Articles...

                                                                                            • 3.7.A. Explore and record how soils are formed by weathering of rock and the decomposition of plant and animal remains

                                                                                              Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                • 3.7.B. Investigate rapid changes in Earth's surface such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and landslides

                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                                                                    • 3.7.C. Identify and compare different landforms, including mountains, hills, valleys, and plains;

                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                                                        • 3.7.D. Explore the characteristics of natural resources that make them useful in products and materials such as clothing and furniture and how resources may be conserved.

                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                                                            3.8 Earth and Space

                                                                                                            The student knows there are recognizable patterns in the natural world and among objects in the sky.


                                                                                                            Loading Articles...

                                                                                                            • 3.8.A. Observe, measure, record, and compare day-to-day weather changes in different locations at the same time that include air temperature, wind direction, and precipitation

                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                • 3.8.B. Describe and illustrate the Sun as a star composed of gases that provides light and heat energy for the water cycle

                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                    • 3.8.C. Construct models that demonstrate the relationship of the Sun, Earth, and Moon, including orbits and positions

                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                        • 3.8.D. Identify the planets in Earth's solar system and their position in relation to the Sun

                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                          Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                            3.9 Organisms and Environments

                                                                                                                            The student knows that organisms have characteristics that help them survive and can describe patterns, cycles, systems, and relationships within the environments.


                                                                                                                            Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                            • 3.9.A. Observe and describe the physical characteristics of environments and how they support populations and communities within an ecosystem

                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                • 3.9.B. Identify and describe the flow of energy in a food chain and predict how changes in a food chain affect the ecosystem such as removal of frogs from a pond or bees from a field

                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                    • 3.9.C. Describe environmental changes such as floods and droughts where some organisms thrive and others perish or move to new locations.

                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                        3.10 Organisms and Environments

                                                                                                                                        The student knows that organisms undergo similar life processes and have structures that help them survive within their environments.


                                                                                                                                        Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                        • 3.10.A. Explore how structures and functions of plants and animals allow them to survive in a particular environment

                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                            • 3.10.B. Explore that some characteristics of organisms are inherited such as the number of limbs on an animal or flower color and recognize that some behaviors are learned in response to living in a certain environment such as animals using tools to get food

                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                • 3.10.C. Investigate and compare how animals and plants undergo a series of orderly changes in their diverse life cycles such as tomato plants, frogs, and lady bugs.

                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                    4.1-4 Scientific Investigation and Reasoning

                                                                                                                                                    Introduction


                                                                                                                                                    Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                    • 4.1.A. Demonstrate safe practices and the use of safety equipment as described in the Texas Safety Standards during classroom and outdoor investigations

                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                        • 4.1.B. Make informed choices in the use and conservation of natural resources and reusing and recycling of materials such as paper, aluminum, glass, cans, and plastic.

                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                            • 4.2.A. Plan and implement descriptive investigations, including asking well-defined questions, making inferences, and selecting and using appropriate equipment or technology to answer his/her questions

                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                • 4.2.B. Collect and record data by observing and measuring, using the metric system, and using descriptive words and numerals such as labeled drawings, writing, and concept maps

                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                    • 4.2.C. Construct simple tables, charts, bar graphs, and maps using tools and current technology to organize, examine, and evaluate data

                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                        • 4.2.D. Analyze data and interpret patterns to construct reasonable explanations from data that can be observed and measured

                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                            • 4.2.E. Perform repeated investigations to increase the reliability of results

                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                • 4.2.F. Communicate valid, oral, and written results supported by data

                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                    • 4.3.A. In all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student

                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                        • 4.3.B. Draw inferences and evaluate accuracy of services and product claims found in advertisements and labels such as for toys, food, and sunscreen

                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                            • 4.3.C. Represent the natural world using models such as rivers, stream tables, or fossils and identify their limitations, including accuracy and size;

                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                • 4.3.D. Connect grade-level appropriate science concepts with the history of science, science careers, and contributions of scientists.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 4.4.A. Collect, record, and analyze information using tools, including calculators, microscopes, cameras, computers, hand lenses, metric rulers, Celsius thermometers, mirrors, spring scales, pan balances, triple beam balances, graduated cylinders, beakers, hot plates, meter sticks, compasses, magnets, collecting nets, and notebooks; timing devices, including clocks and stopwatches; and materials to support observation of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 4.4.B. Use safety equipment as appropriate, including safety goggles and gloves

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4.5 Matter and Energy

                                                                                                                                                                                                            The student knows that matter has measurable physical properties and those properties determine how matter is classified, changed, and used.


                                                                                                                                                                                                            Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 4.5.A. Measure, compare, and contrast physical properties of matter, including size, mass, volume, states (solid, liquid, gas), temperature, magnetism, and the ability to sink or float

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 4.5.B. Predict the changes caused by heating and cooling such as ice becoming liquid water and condensation forming on the outside of a glass of ice water

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 4.5.C. Compare and contrast a variety of mixtures and solutions such as rocks in sand, sand in water, or sugar in water.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4.6 Force, Motion, and Energy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The student knows that energy exists in many forms and can be observed in cycles, patterns, and systems.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 4.6.A. Differentiate among forms of energy, including mechanical, sound, electrical, light, and heat/thermal

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 4.6.B. Differentiate between conductors and insulators

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 4.6.C. Demonstrate that electricity travels in a closed path, creating an electrical circuit, and explore an electromagnetic field

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 4.6.D. Design an experiment to test the effect of force on an object such as a push or a pull, gravity, friction, or magnetism.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4.7 Earth and Space

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The students know that Earth consists of useful resources and its surface is constantly changing.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 4.7.A. Examine properties of soils, including color and texture, capacity to retain water, and ability to support the growth of plants

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 4.7.B. Observe and identify slow changes to Earth's surface caused by weathering, erosion, and deposition from water, wind, and ice

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 6

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 4.7.C. Identify and classify Earth's renewable resources, including air, plants, water, and animals; and nonrenewable resources, including coal, oil, and natural gas; and the importance of conservation

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4.8 Earth and Space

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The student knows that there are recognizable patterns in the natural world and among the Sun, Earth, and Moon system.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 4.8.A. Measure and record changes in weather and make predictions using weather maps, weather symbols, and a map key

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 4.8.B. Describe and illustrate the continuous movement of water above and on the surface of Earth through the water cycle and explain the role of the Sun as a major source of energy in this process

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 4.8.C. Collect and analyze data to identify sequences and predict patterns of change in shadows, tides, seasons, and the observable appearance of the Moon over time

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4.9 Organisms and Environments

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The student knows and understands that living organisms within an ecosystem interact with one another and with their environment.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 4.9.A. Investigate that most producers need sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to make their own food, while consumers are dependent on other organisms for food

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 4.9.B. Describe the flow of energy through food webs, beginning with the Sun, and predict how changes in the ecosystem affect the food web such as a fire in a forest

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4.10 Organisms and Environments

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The student knows that organisms undergo similar life processes and have structures that help them survive within their environment.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 4.10.A. Explore how adaptations enable organisms to survive in their environment such as comparing birds' beaks and leaves on plants

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 4.10.B. Demonstrate that some likenesses between parents and offspring are inherited, passed from generation to generation such as eye color in humans or shapes of leaves in plants. Other likenesses are learned such as table manners or reading a book and seals balancing balls on their noses

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 4.10.C. Explore, illustrate, and compare life cycles in living organisms such as butterflies, beetles, radishes, or lima beans.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5.1-4 Scientific Investigation and Reasoning

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Introduction


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 5.1.A. Demonstrate safe practices and the use of safety equipment as described in the Texas Safety Standards during classroom and outdoor investigations; and

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 5.1.B. Make informed choices in the conservation, disposal, and recycling of materials.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 5.10.A. Compare the structures and functions of different species that help them live and survive such as hooves on prairie animals or webbed feet in aquatic animals;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 5.10.B. Differentiate between inherited traits of plants and animals such as spines on a cactus or shape of a beak and learned behaviors such as an animal learning tricks or a child riding a bicycle;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 5.10.C. Describe the differences between complete and incomplete metamorphosis of insects

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 5.2.A. Describe, plan, and implement simple experimental investigations testing one variable;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 5.2.B. Ask well-defined questions, formulate testable hypotheses, and select and use appropriate equipment and technology

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 5.2.C. Collect information by detailed observations and accurate measuring;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 5.2.D. Analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations from direct (observable) and indirect (inferred) evidence;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 5.2.E. Demonstrate that repeated investigations may increase the reliability of results;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 5.2.F. Communicate valid conclusions in both written and verbal forms; and

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 5.2.G. Construct appropriate simple graphs, tables, maps, and charts using technology, including computers, to organize, examine, and evaluate information.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 5.3.A. In all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 5.3.B. Evaluate the accuracy of the information related to promotional materials for products and services such as nutritional labels

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 5.3.C. Draw or develop a model that represents how something works or looks that cannot be seen such as how a soda dispensing machine works; and

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 5.3.D. Connect grade-level appropriate science concepts with the history of science, science careers, and contributions of scientists.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 5.4.A. Collect, record, and analyze information using tools, including calculators, microscopes, cameras, computers, hand lenses, metric rulers, Celsius thermometers, prisms, mirrors, pan balances, triple beam balances, spring scales, graduated cylinders, beakers, hot plates, meter sticks, magnets, collecting nets, and notebooks; timing devices, including clocks and stopwatches; and materials to support observations of habitats or organisms such as terrariums and aquariums

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 5.4.B. Use safety equipment, including safety goggles and gloves.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5.5 Matter and Energy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The student knows that matter has measurable physical properties and those properties determine how matter is classified, changed, and used.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 5.5.A. Classify matter based on physical properties, including mass, magnetism, physical state (solid, liquid, and gas), relative density (sinking and floating), solubility in water, and the ability to conduct or insulate thermal energy or electric energy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 5.5.B. Identify the boiling and freezing/melting points of water on the Celsius scale

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 5.5.C. Demonstrate that some mixtures maintain physical properties of their ingredients such as iron filings and sand; and

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 5.5.D. Identify changes that can occur in the physical properties of the ingredients of solutions such as dissolving salt in water or adding lemon juice to water.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5.6 Force, Motion, and Energy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The student knows that energy occurs in many forms and can be observed in cycles, patterns, and systems.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 5.6.A. Explore the uses of energy, including mechanical, light, thermal, electrical, and sound energy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 5.6.B. Demonstrate that the flow of electricity in circuits requires a complete path through which an electric current can pass and can produce light, heat, and sound

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 5.6.C. Demonstrate that light travels in a straight line until it strikes an object or travels through one medium to another and demonstrate that light can be reflected such as the use of mirrors or other shiny surfaces and refracted such as the appearance of an object when observed through water; and

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 5.6.D. Design an experiment that tests the effect of force on an object.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5.7 Earth and Space

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The student knows Earth's surface is constantly changing and consists of useful resources.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 5.7.A. Explore the processes that led to the formation of sedimentary rocks and fossil fuels;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 5.7.B. Recognize how landforms such as deltas, canyons, and sand dunes are the result of changes to Earth's surface by wind, water, and ice;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 5

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 5.7.C. Identify alternative energy resources such as wind, solar, hydroelectric, geothermal, and biofuels;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 5.7.D. Identify fossils as evidence of past living organisms and the nature of the environments at the time using models.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5.8 Earth and Space

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The student knows that there are recognizable patterns in the natural world and among the Sun, Earth, and Moon system.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 5.8.A. Differentiate between weather and climate

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 5.8.B. Explain how the Sun and the ocean interact in the water cycle

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 5.8.C. Demonstrate that Earth rotates on its axis once approximately every 24 hours causing the day/night cycle and the apparent movement of the Sun across the sky

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 5.8.D. Identify and compare the physical characteristics of the Sun, Earth, and Moon

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5.9 Organisms and Environments

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The student knows that there are relationships, systems, and cycles within environments.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 5.9.A. Observe the way organisms live and survive in their ecosystem by interacting with the living and non-living elements

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 5.9.B. Describe how the flow of energy derived from the Sun, used by producers to create their own food, is transferred through a food chain and food web to consumers and decomposers;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 5.9.C. Predict the effects of changes in ecosystems caused by living organisms, including humans, such as the overpopulation of grazers or the building of highways

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 5.9.D. Identify the significance of the carbon dioxide-oxygen cycle to the survival of plants and animals.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5.10 Organisms and Environments

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The student knows that organisms undergo similar life processes and have structures that help them survive within their environments.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 5.10.A. Compare the structures and functions of different species that help them live and survive such as hooves on prairie animals or webbed feet in aquatic animals;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 5.10.B. Differentiate between inherited traits of plants and animals such as spines on a cactus or shape of a beak and learned behaviors such as an animal learning tricks or a child riding a bicycle;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 5.10.C. Describe the differences between complete and incomplete metamorphosis of insects

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6.1-4 Scientific Investigation and Reasoning

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Introduction


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 6.0.Intro.1. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Science, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 6.0.Intro.2. Scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions become theories. Scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple, independent researchers. Students should know that scientific theories, unlike hypotheses, are well-established and highly reliable, but they may still be subject to change as new information and technologies are developed. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical/social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 6.1.A. Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations as outlined in the Texas Safety Standards; and

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 6.1.B. Practice appropriate use and conservation of resources, including disposal, reuse, or recycling of materials.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 6.2.A. Plan and implement comparative and descriptive investigations by making observations, asking well-defined questions, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 6.2.B. Design and implement experimental investigations by making observations, asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 6.2.C. Collect and record data using the International System of Units (SI) and qualitative means such as labeled drawings, writing, and graphic organizers;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 6.2.D. Construct tables and graphs, using repeated trials and means, to organize data and identify patterns; and

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 6.2.E. Analyze data to formulate reasonable explanations, communicate valid conclusions supported by the data, and predict trends.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 6.3.A. In all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 6.3.B. Use models to represent aspects of the natural world such as a model of Earth's layers;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 6.3.C. Identify advantages and limitations of models such as size, scale, properties, and materials; and

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 6.3.D. Relate the impact of research on scientific thought and society, including the history of science and contributions of scientists as related to the content.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 6.4.A. Use appropriate tools to collect, record, and analyze information, including journals/notebooks, beakers, Petri dishes, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, hot plates, test tubes, triple beam balances, microscopes, thermometers, calculators, computers, timing devices, and other equipment as needed to teach the curriculum; and

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 6.4.B. Use preventative safety equipment, including chemical splash goggles, aprons, and gloves, and be prepared to use emergency safety equipment, including an eye/face wash, a fire blanket, and a fire extinguisher.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6.5 Matter and Energy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The student knows the differences between elements and compounds.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 6.5.A. Know that an element is a pure substance represented by chemical symbols.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 6.5.B. Recognize that a limited number of the many known elements comprise the largest portion of solid Earth, living matter, oceans, and the atmosphere.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 6.5.C. Differentiate between elements and compounds on the most basic level.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 6.5.D. Identify the formation of a new substance by using the evidence of a possible chemical change such as production of a gas, change in temperature, production of a precipitate, or color change.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6.6 Matter and Energy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The student knows matter has physical properties that can be used for classification.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 6.6.A. Compare metals, nonmetals, and metalloids using physical properties such as luster, conductivity, or malleability.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 6.6.B. Calculate density to identify an unknown substance.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 6.6.C. Test the physical properties of minerals, including hardness, color, luster, and streak.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6.7 Matter and Energy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The student knows that some of Earth's energy resources are available on a nearly perpetual basis, while others can be renewed over a relatively short period of time. Some energy resources, once depleted, are essentially nonrenewable.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 6.7.A. Research and debate the advantages and disadvantages of using coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear power, biomass, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar resources.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 6.7.B. Design a logical plan to manage energy resources in the home, school, or community.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6.8 Force, Motion, and Energy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The student knows force and motion are related to potential and kinetic energy.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 6.8.A. Compare and contrast potential and kinetic energy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 6.8.B. Identify and describe the changes in position, direction, and speed of an object when acted upon by unbalanced forces.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 6.8.C. Calculate average speed using distance and time measurements.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 6.8.D. Measure and graph changes in motion.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 6.8.E. Investigate how inclined planes and pulleys can be used to change the amount of force to move an object.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6.9 Force, Motion, and Energy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The student knows that the Law of Conservation of Energy states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it just changes form.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 6.9.A. Investigate methods of thermal energy transfer, including conduction, convection, and radiation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 5

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 6.9.B. Verify through investigations that thermal energy moves in a predictable pattern from warmer to cooler until all the substances attain the same temperature such as an ice cube melting.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 6.9.C. Demonstrate energy transformations such as energy in a flashlight battery changes from chemical energy to electrical energy to light energy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6.10 Earth and Space

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The student understands the structure of Earth, the rock cycle, and plate tectonics.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 6.10.A. Build a model to illustrate the structural layers of Earth, including the inner core, outer core, mantle, crust, asthenosphere, and lithosphere.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 6.10.B. Classify rocks as metamorphic, igneous, or sedimentary by the processes of their formation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 6.10.C. Identify the major tectonic plates, including Eurasian, African, Indo-Australian, Pacific, North American, and South American.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 6.10.D. Describe how plate tectonics causes major geological events such as ocean basins, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6.11 Earth and Space

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The student understands the organization of our solar system and the relationships among the various bodies that comprise it.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 6.11.A. Describe the physical properties, locations, and movements of the Sun, planets, Galilean moons, meteors, asteroids, and comets.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 5

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 6.11.B. Understand that gravity is the force that governs the motion of our solar system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 6.11.C. Describe the history and future of space exploration, including the types of equipment and transportation needed for space travel.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6.12 Organisms and Environments

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The student knows all organisms are classified into Domains and Kingdoms. Organisms within these taxonomic groups share similar characteristics which allow them to interact with the living and nonliving parts of their ecosystem.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 6.12.A. Understand that all organisms are composed of one or more cells.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 6.12.B. Recognize that the presence of a nucleus determines whether a cell is prokaryotic or eukaryotic.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 6.12.C. Recognize that the broadest taxonomic classification of living organisms is divided into currently recognized Domains.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 6.12.D. Identify the basic characteristics of organisms, including prokaryotic or eukaryotic, unicellular or multicellular, autotrophic or heterotrophic, and mode of reproduction, that further classify them in the currently recognized Kingdoms.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 6.12.E. Describe biotic and abiotic parts of an ecosystem in which organisms interact.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 6.12.F. Diagram the levels of organization within an ecosystem, including organism, population, community, and ecosystem.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7.1-4 Scientific Investigation and Reasoning

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Introduction


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 7.0.Intro.1. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 7.0.Intro.2. Scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions become theories. Scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple, independent researchers. Students should know that scientific theories, unlike hypotheses, are well-established and highly reliable, but they may still be subject to change as new information and technologies are developed. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical/social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 7.1.A. Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations as outlined in the Texas Safety Standards.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 7.1.B. Practice appropriate use and conservation of resources, including disposal, reuse, or recycling of materials.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 7.2.A. Plan and implement comparative and descriptive investigations by making observations, asking well-defined questions, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 7.2.B. Design and implement experimental investigations by making observations, asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 7.2.C. Collect and record data using the International System of Units (SI) and qualitative means such as labeled drawings, writing, and graphic organizers;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 7.2.D. Construct tables and graphs, using repeated trials and means, to organize data and identify patterns; and

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 7.2.E. Analyze data to formulate reasonable explanations, communicate valid conclusions supported by the data, and predict trends.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 7.3.A. In all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 7.3.B. Use models to represent aspects of the natural world such as human body systems and plant and animal cells;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 7.3.C. Identify advantages and limitations of models such as size, scale, properties, and materials; and

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 7.3.D. Relate the impact of research on scientific thought and society, including the history of science and contributions of scientists as related to the content.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 7.4.A. Use appropriate tools to collect, record, and analyze information, including life science models, hand lens, stereoscopes, microscopes, beakers, Petri dishes, microscope slides, graduated cylinders, test tubes, meter sticks, metric rulers, metric tape measures, timing devices, hot plates, balances, thermometers, calculators, water test kits, computers, temperature and pH probes, collecting nets, insect traps, globes, digital cameras, journals/notebooks, and other equipment as needed to teach the curriculum; and

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 7.4.B. Use preventative safety equipment, including chemical splash goggles, aprons, and gloves, and be prepared to use emergency safety equipment, including an eye/face wash, a fire blanket, and a fire extinguisher.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7.5 Matter and Energy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The student knows that interactions occur between matter and energy.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 7.5.A. Recognize that radiant energy from the Sun is transformed into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 7.5.B. Demonstrate and explain the cycling of matter within living systems such as in the decay of biomass in a compost bin.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 7.5.C. Diagram the flow of energy through living systems, including food chains, food webs, and energy pyramids.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7.6 Matter and Energy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The student knows that matter has physical and chemical properties and can undergo physical and chemical changes.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 7.6.A. Identify that organic compounds contain carbon and other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, nitrogen, or sulfur.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 7.6.B. Distinguish between physical and chemical changes in matter in the digestive system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 7.6.C. Recognize how large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules such as carbohydrates can be broken down into sugars.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7.7 Force, Motion, and Energy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The student knows that there is a relationship among force, motion, and energy.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 7.7.A. Contrast situations where work is done with different amounts of force to situations where no work is done such as moving a box with a ramp and without a ramp, or standing still.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 7.7.B. Illustrate the transformation of energy within an organism such as the transfer from chemical energy to heat and thermal energy in digestion.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 7.7.C. Demonstrate and illustrate forces that affect motion in everyday life such as emergence of seedlings, turgor pressure, and geotropism.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7.8 Earth and Space

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The student knows that natural events and human activity can impact Earth systems.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 7.8.A. Predict and describe how different types of catastrophic events impact ecosystems such as floods, hurricanes, or tornadoes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 7.8.B. Analyze the effects of weathering, erosion, and deposition on the environment in ecoregions of Texas.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 7.8.C. Model the effects of human activity on groundwater and surface water in a watershed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7.9 Earth and Space

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The student knows components of our solar system.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 7.9.A. Analyze the characteristics of objects in our solar system that allow life to exist such as the proximity of the Sun, presence of water, and composition of the atmosphere.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 7.9.B. Identify the accommodations, considering the characteristics of our solar system, that enabled manned space exploration.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7.10 Organisms and Environments

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The student knows that there is a relationship between organisms and the environment.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 7.10.A. Observe and describe how different environments, including microhabitats in schoolyards and biomes, support different varieties of organisms.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 7.10.B. Describe how biodiversity contributes to the sustainability of an ecosystem.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 7.10.C. Observe, record, and describe the role of ecological succession such as in a microhabitat of a garden with weeds.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7.11 Organisms and Environments

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The student knows that populations and species demonstrate variation and inherit many of their unique traits through gradual processes over many generations.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 7.11.A. Examine organisms or their structures such as insects or leaves and use dichotomous keys for identification.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 7.11.B. Explain variation within a population or species by comparing external features, behaviors, or physiology of organisms that enhance their survival such as migration, hibernation, or storage of food in a bulb.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 7.11.C. Identify some changes in genetic traits that have occurred over several generations through natural selection and selective breeding such as the Galapagos Medium Ground Finch (Geospiza fortis) or domestic animals.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7.12 Organisms and Environments

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The student knows that living systems at all levels of organization demonstrate the complementary nature of structure and function.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 7.12.A. Investigate and explain how internal structures of organisms have adaptations that allow specific functions such as gills in fish, hollow bones in birds, or xylem in plants.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 7.12.B. Identify the main functions of the systems of the human organism, including the circulatory, respiratory, skeletal, muscular, digestive, excretory, reproductive, integumentary, nervous, and endocrine systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 14

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 7.12.C. Recognize levels of organization in plants and animals, including cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 7.12.D. Differentiate between structure and function in plant and animal cell organelles, including cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion, chloroplast, and vacuole.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 7.12.E. Compare the functions of a cell to the functions of organisms such as waste removal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 7.12.F. Recognize that according to cell theory all organisms are composed of cells and cells carry on similar functions such as extracting energy from food to sustain life.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7.13 Organisms and Environments

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The student knows that a living organism must be able to maintain balance in stable internal conditions in response to external and internal stimuli.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 7.13.A. Investigate how organisms respond to external stimuli found in the environment such as phototropism and fight or flight.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 7.13.B. Describe and relate responses in organisms that may result from internal stimuli such as wilting in plants and fever or vomiting in animals that allow them to maintain balance.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7.14 Organisms and Environments

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The student knows that reproduction is a characteristic of living organisms and that the instructions for traits are governed in the genetic material.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 7.14.A. Define heredity as the passage of genetic instructions from one generation to the next generation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 7.14.B. Compare the results of uniform or diverse offspring from sexual reproduction or asexual reproduction.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 7.14.C. Recognize that inherited traits of individuals are governed in the genetic material found in the genes within chromosomes in the nucleus.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8.1-4 Scientific Investigation and Reasoning

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Introduction


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 8.0.Intro.1. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 8.0.Intro.2. Scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions become theories. Scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple, independent researchers. Students should know that scientific theories, unlike hypotheses, are well-established and highly reliable, but they may still be subject to change as new information and technologies are developed. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical/social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 8.1.A. Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations as outlined in the Texas Safety Standards; and

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 8.1.B. Practice appropriate use and conservation of resources, including disposal, reuse, or recycling of materials.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 8.2.A. Plan and implement comparative and descriptive investigations by making observations, asking well-defined questions, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 8.2.B. Design and implement comparative and experimental investigations by making observations, asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 8.2.C. Collect and record data using the International System of Units (SI) and qualitative means such as labeled drawings, writing, and graphic organizers;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 8.2.D. Construct tables and graphs, using repeated trials and means, to organize data and identify patterns; and

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 8.2.E. Analyze data to formulate reasonable explanations, communicate valid conclusions supported by the data, and predict trends.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 8.3.A. In all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 8.3.B. Use models to represent aspects of the natural world such as an atom, a molecule, space, or a geologic feature;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 8.3.C. Identify advantages and limitations of models such as size, scale, properties, and materials; and

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 8.3.D. Relate the impact of research on scientific thought and society, including the history of science and contributions of scientists as related to the content.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 8.4.A. Use appropriate tools to collect, record, and analyze information, including lab journals/notebooks, beakers, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, anemometers, psychrometers, hot plates, test tubes, spring scales, balances, microscopes, thermometers, calculators, computers, spectroscopes, timing devices, and other equipment as needed to teach the curriculum; and

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 8.4.B. Use preventative safety equipment, including chemical splash goggles, aprons, and gloves, and be prepared to use emergency safety equipment, including an eye/face wash, a fire blanket, and a fire extinguisher.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8.5 Matter and Energy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The student knows that matter is composed of atoms and has chemical and physical properties.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 8.5.A. Describe the structure of atoms, including the masses, electrical charges, and locations, of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and electrons in the electron cloud.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 8.5.B. Identify that protons determine an element's identity and valence electrons determine its chemical properties, including reactivity.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 8.5.C. Interpret the arrangement of the Periodic Table, including groups and periods, to explain how properties are used to classify elements.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 8.5.D. Recognize that chemical formulas are used to identify substances and determine the number of atoms of each element in chemical formulas containing subscripts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 8.5.E. Investigate how evidence of chemical reactions indicate that new substances with different properties are formed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 8.5.F. Recognize whether a chemical equation containing coefficients is balanced or not and how that relates to the law of conservation of mass.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8.6 Force, Motion, and Energy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The student knows that there is a relationship between force, motion, and energy.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 8.6.A. Demonstrate and calculate how unbalanced forces change the speed or direction of an object's motion.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 8.6.B. Differentiate between speed, velocity, and acceleration.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 8.6.C. Investigate and describe applications of Newton's law of inertia, law of force and acceleration, and law of action-reaction such as in vehicle restraints, sports activities, amusement park rides, Earth's tectonic activities, and rocket launches.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8.7 Earth and Space

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The student knows the effects resulting from cyclical movements of the Sun, Earth, and Moon.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 8.7.A. Model and illustrate how the tilted Earth rotates on its axis, causing day and night, and revolves around the Sun causing changes in seasons.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 8.7.B. Demonstrate and predict the sequence of events in the lunar cycle.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 8.7.C. Relate the position of the Moon and Sun to their effect on ocean tides.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8.8 Earth and Space

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The student knows characteristics of the universe.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 8.8.A. Describe components of the universe, including stars, nebulae, and galaxies, and use models such as the Herztsprung-Russell diagram for classification.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 5

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 8.8.B. Recognize that the Sun is a medium-sized star near the edge of a disc-shaped galaxy of stars and that the Sun is many thousands of times closer to Earth than any other star.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 8.8.C. Explore how different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum such as light and radio waves are used to gain information about distances and properties of components in the universe.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 8.8.D. Model and describe how light years are used to measure distances and sizes in the universe.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 8.8.E. Research how scientific data are used as evidence to develop scientific theories to describe the origin of the universe.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8.9 Earth and Space

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The student knows that natural events can impact Earth systems.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 8.9.A. Describe the historical development of evidence that supports plate tectonic theory.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 8.9.B. Relate plate tectonics to the formation of crustal features.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 8.9.C. Interpret topographic maps and satellite views to identify land and erosional features and predict how these features may be reshaped by weathering.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8.10 Earth and Space

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The student knows that climatic interactions exist among Earth, ocean, and weather systems.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 8.10.A. Recognize that the Sun provides the energy that drives convection within the atmosphere and oceans, producing winds and ocean currents.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 5

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 8.10.B. Identify how global patterns of atmospheric movement influence local weather using weather maps that show high and low pressures and fronts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 8.10.C. Identify the role of the oceans in the formation of weather systems such as hurricanes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            8.11 Organisms and Environments

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The student knows that interdependence occurs among living systems and the environment and that human activities can affect these systems.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Loading Articles...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 8.11.A. Describe producer/consumer, predator/prey, and parasite/host relationships as they occur in food webs within marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aligned Articles 5

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 8.11.B. Investigate how organisms and populations in an ecosystem depend on and may compete for biotic and abiotic factors such as quantity of light, water, range of temperatures, or soil composition.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aligned Articles 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 8.11.C. Explore how short- and long-term environmental changes affect organisms and traits in subsequent populations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aligned Articles 4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Background Articles 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 8.12.D. Recognize human dependence on ocean systems and explain how human activities such as runoff, artificial reefs, or use of resources have modified these systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aligned Articles 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Background Articles 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Teachers, get a free one month trial!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Get RocketLit Science and History for use in your classroom
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            for one month, absolutely free.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Automatic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Differentiation

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Student reading levels are diagnosed when they first login, and students read the same content at their independent reading level.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Personalized
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            for Every Student

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            As students improve, they move up reading levels. Both struggling and gifted students read accessible content that challenges them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Time
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            on Lesson Planning

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Adapting content takes time and inaccessible textbooks are a barrier to students reading. We're here to make teachers' lives easier.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Experience

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            as a student

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Reading Level Diagnostic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Leveled Assignments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Annotations and Highlighting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Free Response Questions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Articles Read Aloud

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            as a teacher

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Reports to Inform Instruction
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Easily Assign for NGSS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Exportable Gradebook
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Printable Articles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Shareable Reports
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Joanne Salustri
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7th & 8th Grade
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            It’s a resource students have been motivated to read because the articles are interesting and well-written. It is rewarding to see that after reading the articles and taking the free response questions, they do understand the concepts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            St. Patrick's School
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Huntington, NY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Corbin Rice
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6th Grade Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The platform’s ease of use and intuitive design drew me in, but the differentiation piece is really the seller. I can look up a million articles on everything on my own, but the website already does it all for me.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Northeast Middle School
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Minneapolis, MN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Beth Donoghue
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6th Grade Science
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            & Social Studies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Finding leveled reading resources with the same concepts had been a struggle, so I love how RocketLit articles are leveled for individual reading levels, but still have common examples and vocabulary we could discuss as a class.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Chippewa Middle School
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Des Plaines, IL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Chad Ledune
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Middle School Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Even my most gifted students have voiced their opinions on how challenging RocketLit is. Which, as a teacher, is something that I appreciate about the product. Many of my students are reading at the 11-12th grade level.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Sullivan Middle School
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            St. Carlisle, IN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Click on any
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            TEKS Standard

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Easily view all articles aligned to each
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            TEKS standard